Gary Magrattan's PEMM Electric motor is said to harness the phenomenon of electron avalanche across a spark gap to boost current, voltage, and power. A unique method of harnessing back EMF adds to it's novelty as it nears production.
There is more to a spark than a simple transfer of electrical energy. When you see electricity jump from one electrode to another or observe a bolt of lighting flash in the sky, mechanisms are taking place that liberate large amounts of energy. This energy can be collected and harnessed to perform work. California, US inventor, Gary Magrattan's PEMM or "Pulsed DC Electromagnetic Motor", building on the work of John Bedini, is designed to produce and capture this energy to increase voltage, current, and total power. It also utilizes a unique pulsing method that enables optimal timing and allows the collapsing magnetic field of the electromagnets to produce an extra repulsive force. The result is a high torque motor that can potentially extend the range of electric vehicles.
The PEMM Setup
The basic operation of the PEMM motor is straightforward. An ordinary battery (low voltage) powers an inverter that converts the DC (direct current) to AC (alternating current). Next, the output of the inverter is sent to a transformer that converts the still fairly low voltage AC to a higher voltage. This high voltage alternating current is converted back into direct current electricity by the means of a full bridge rectifier. The high voltage DC is then stored in one or more capacitors.
The capacitor is pulsed by the commutator. This occurs when the rotor electromagnet is approximately two degrees or one fourth inch past the stator. At this position the electrodes align with a high voltage potential. This allows a spark to jump the gap from the cathode (negative pole) to the anode (positive pole) through atmosphere. It is during this moment that a couple of very unique phenomena take place that allow for the circuit to increase in current and voltage — hence an increase in total power. This increase in total power (beyond what was provided by the battery) is one feature that makes this motor unique.
(More on these phenomena further down in this article!)
The motor connected to this circuit is composed of multiple stator and rotor electromagnets. No permanent magnets are used. Currently, the electromagnets use silicon steel laminations as core material. It is hoped in the future that supermalloy, permalloy, or mumetal will be used for the cores. The increased permeability of these materials could allow for even more torque to be produced in this already high torque motor.
Immediately after the circuit is pulsed and the spark jumps the gap between electrodes, the rotor and stator electromagnets fire. The rotor electromagnets are wired to lead the stator magnets, but this is largely insignificant because the electricity is flowing so quickly. A repulsive force is created between the stator and rotor electromagnets that produces a very strong torque. An additional torque produced due to the collapse of the same field produces additional torque. This cycle is repeated several times a second.
Electron Avalanche boosts current.
In an electric motor, an increase in current is very beneficial, because a magnetic field is generated by electric current. Hence, with the PEMM motor, an increase in current results in a stronger magnetic field produced by the electromagnets. This increase in magnetic field strength results in more repulsion between stator and rotor electromagnets which means more torque produced by the motor. The torque produced by the PEMM due to this increase in current is claimed to be "explosive" in that it is very, very strong.
However, this is not the only phenomenon utilized by the PEMM motor.
Electron-Positron Annihilation Increases Voltage
The anode of the PEMM can have a positive static charge of thousands of volts. Such a static charge in a metallic material can force electrons out of their bounded position in the orbit of an atomic nucleus and leave a "hole" in their place. This hole is of the opposite polarity and is considered to be the anti-particle of the electron or a "positron."
When the spark crosses the gap between electrodes, and the avalanche of electrons reaches the anode, some of those electrodes can interact with the positron "holes." The result are matter/anti-matter annihilations. These annihilations release radiant energy in the form of x-rays and gamma rays. In fact, these x-rays and gamma rays produced can induce additional electrons to be stripped from their orbits, additional positron "holes" to be formed, and more annihilations. In a sense, this is yet another type of avalanche.
The radiant energy released during the annihilations can be intercepted by the anode material and transferred to the circuit. This results in an increase in voltage. The total power of a circuit is the result of multiplying the volts by the amps. Hence, due to this phenomena the total power of a circuit can be increased.
Of course, it is important to remember that what matters when producing a magnetic field is not voltage, but current flow. Due to this fact, the positron-electron annihilation effect may be considered a less significant contribution to this motor application than the electron avalanche, but it is no doubt a player.
By harnessing these two phenomena – electron avalanche and electron-positron annihilation – the PEMM motor receives a gain of energy. This gain of energy is in addition to the current/voltage needed to create the spark that traveled across the gap between the two electrodes to trigger these two mechanisms. Because of this a PEMM motor has the potential to output more power (torque and horsepower) from less battery input than a conventional electric motor. This gives PEMM the potential to extend the range of electric vehicles.
NASA's Anti-matter Revelation
Did you know that anti-matter is produced in thunderstorms? NASA recently announced this fact and it is being discussed on various blogs and websites. (Ref.) These particles of anti-matter streaming into outer space were detected by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. They are the result of electron avalanches in our atmosphere much like the ones produced between the high voltage electrodes of the PEMM motor.
In a sense, the PEMM motor is harnessing on a smaller scale the power of the lighting bolt! The phenomena are the same except that with the PEMM motor the electron avalanche and electron-positron annihilations are being put to practical use (providing extra power to an electric motor).
Perhaps the world will soon have a low output (compared to the warp core of the Starship Enterprise) anti-matter reactor in production!
Back EMF and the Collapsing Field
Immediately after the spark crosses the gap between electrodes, the stator and rotor electromagnets fire and produce a repulsive force. However, when the pulses cease, the magnetic field rapidly starts to collapse and reverse polarity. This is due to the concept of "Back EMF." Due to the fact both stator and electromagnets are both experiencing this effect at the same time (in phase with each other) an additional repulsive force is created. For example, if the pulse initially created a condition in which both stator and rotor electromagnet had a "north" pole facing each other after the field collapse they would both have a "south" facing pole. This effect produces additional torque the system can utilize.
It is claimed that ordinary motors cannot take advantage of this effect of using Back EMF to produce extra torque. This is because the field collapse due to back EMF in conventional motors are always slightly out of phase. This is due to direct current being transformed into alternating current by a commutator which produces a sinusoidal wave form which is much different than the PEMM initial power pulse and magnetic field collapse which are always in phase.
Future Recycling of Back EMF
An important feature to note is that the current implementation of the PEMM does not incorporate a method of recycling the input (along with the extra current/voltage produced by electron avalanche and electron-positron annihilation) back into the battery to be re-used. However, the boost of current and voltage (probably most importantly current) is thought to be enough to provide a significant increase in range to electric vehicles using the PEMM motor.
In the future this feature could be incorporated into the design to further increase the range of vehicles utilizing the motor. However, permission from John Bedini who "wrote the book" on recycling of input and back EMF would be first be needed. Not obtaining his permission would be infringing on his work.
Gary Magrattan, who is the developer of the PEMM motor, is eager to take the device from the lab to full scale production. He has filed an application with the Department of Energy for a research and development grant for one year of run-in testing on the motor and drive circuit. The proposal was received favorably. Approval for the grant will require a six month process.
In order to find companies interested in manufacturing the motor, Gary contacted multiple corporations in the United States. That search yielded no success (probably due to the horrible state of the economy) so he decided to contact Chinese electric motor manufacturers. Since then he has received over thirty serious inquiries from companies interested in manufacturing his motor.
As the motor nears production, Gary plans to have horsepower tests performed on the motor. These would have already been performed, but they are quite complex. To accurately calculate horsepower from this system requires a, "a dynamometer and a complex system of measurement; IEEE standard 112 for single phase motors. This requires 6 point loading on the motor shaft and linear regression analysis. This will give us a better understanding of the output compared to the input."
Here is the abstract of the proposal that was sent to the Department of Energy.
During the process that allows the spark to cross the gap between electrodes (through open air),- special phenomena occur. One of these is called "Electron Avalanche." This occurs when the air between the electrodes breaks down into a conducting plasma. The high voltage electric flux begins to break loose electrons from the atoms of air molecules. A cascade then begins in which a few liberated electrons ionize additional air molecules via the emission of ultraviolet radiation. This photo-electric effect induces the release of even more electrons. The chain reaction continues and large quantities of free electrons are generated. A small number of these electrons are bound to the positive ions created, but most are drawn to the positive anode. Since current is defined as a flow of electrons the result is an increased current in the circuit.
The phenomenon of "Electron Avalanche" is not conjecture, but hard science. It is detailed well in a publication titled "The Mechanism Of The Electric Spark", Stanford University Press, Copyright 1941 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, printed and bound in the United States of America by Stanford University Press. This publication covers the research of Leonard B. Loeb, Professor of Physics, University of California at Berkeley; and John M. Meek, Commonwealth Fund Fellow, University of California at Berkeley, Research Engineer with Metropolitan Vicars Company, Manchester England. Lengthy excerpts from this fascinating document can be found in the three engineering reports being offered at the PEMM
The PEMM motor is a new, high performance electric motor for electric vehicles. PEMM, Pusled DC ElectroMagnet Motor.
The PEMM motor employs electron avalanche as developed in a high voltage spark gap exposed to open air. The electrochemical process of electron avalanche produces an increase in the magnetic flux of the opposing electromagnets that provides additional motor torque.
The PEMM motor also employs counter EMF to develop additional power. When the primary DC pulse ceases, a magnetic field collapses to form a secondary, counter EMF that creates additional torque in the motor's opposing electromagnets.
The PEMM motor is lighter than conventional electric vehicle motors. The battery bank required is substantially smaller and therefore making the electric vehicle lighter. The cost of charging the batteries is reduced. The range of the electric vehicle is extended.
The PEMM motor is a new technology with potential applications far beyond electric vehicles. This proposal seeks to research and develop this new technology to provide clean, renewable energy for the world. The development and manufacture of the PEMM motor will reduce dependence on imported foreign oil.
Note: The PEMM motor proposal is for a single phase motor capable of powering a light electric vehicle [inner city]. Upon successful completion of the single phase motor, a three phase PEMM motor capable of powering a conventional, medium size car or light duty truck will be developed.
DOE proposal: PEMM 2011-23 accepted by the DOE 1/21/2011 for review and funding in 4 to 6 months.
Partnership with Alpha Magnetics
After a business meeting with Ken Wadsworth (the President of Alpha Magnetics), a partnership was founded. Alpha Magnetics will help Gary bring two PEMM motors to manufacture. As an example of the assistance they can provide, Alpha Magnetics will be modeling the PEMM motor in a professional engineering simulation program.
Alpha Magnetics of Hayward, California will be a valuable partner for Gary. Their vast experience in electromagnetic systems, superconducting magnets, semi-conductors, and power supplies will be very useful in bringing the PEMM to manufacture. Alpha Magnetics track record of producing electromagnets and other components for CERN, LLNL,LANL, SLAC, BNL, LBNL, and various military projects, is also noteworthy.
In fact, it was the president of Alpha Magnetics (Kens Wadsworth) who helped Gary Magrattan prepare and submit the application for a research and development grant from the Department of Energy. Their partnership will likely help accelerate the development of the PEMM motor.
Here is a quote from their website describing their company:
"Alpha Magnetics has been a leader in the design and manufacturing of specialty electromagnet and power supply systems, conventional and superconducting since 1964. We provide quality products to the semiconductor, medical, communication, research, and development industries and various technical academic institutions and universities throughout the world."
Thunderstruck Motors and the Electric Vehicle Revolution
Gary Magrattan has made many contacts in his desire to manufacture the PEMM motor. One of these contacts is Brian Hall, the owner of Thunderstruck Motors of Sebastipol, California. They discussed the use of the PEMM motor for conversion of internal combustion vehicles into electric vehicles.
Electric vehicles are becoming more popular all the time. A few electric vehicles are very well known such as the Tesla Roadster. However, Thunderstruck Motors offers a potentially better alternative to mass produced electric vehicles. They offer custom conversions of motorcycles, cars, and trucks with internal combustion engines into electric vehicles. If the development of the PEMM proceeds as is hoped, perhaps they will eventually offer conversions featuring this unique motor.
The result of a vehicle with an internal combustion engine being converted to an electric vehicle using the PEMM motor would be zero emissions, but most importantly a greatly extended range due to lower power drain on the battery compared to a conventional electric motor. If a large number of vehicles were converted to using PEMM motors, pollution levels could be reduced, our dependence on oil could be lowered, and gasoline prices might cease climbing to record highs (or their climb might not have as much impact because our dependency is removed).
Jobs would also be created by the widespread manufacture and implementation of the PEMM motor. There would be a need for new factories to be built in the USA. This would be a big boost to a nation that has lost much of its manufacturing base. Also, employees and technicians would be needed to install these motors. Perhaps the PEMM motor could help pull this nation out of the current recession (of course nothing will help if the Federal Reserve continues printing money out of thin air).
Three Engineering Reports Available
Magrattan has made three engineering reports about this technology available. They provide full disclosure about the PEMM motor including its operation, engineering schematics, components, theoretical background, and the science of electron avalanche and electron-positron annihilation. Working drawings are also provided. The fee for these reports is low, and proceeds help Gary continue his work developing the PEMM motor. You can order these reports at the following site: http://PEMMElectricMotor.com/
Please consider supporting Gary's efforts as this motor moves closer to manufacture. In an age of increasing gas prices and a worsening economy, technologies that could make a true positive impact deserve our support.
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This story is also posted at BeforeItsNews.
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