Tag: anatomy

Infants Deeply Traumatized By Common Medical Procedures

Just Up Ahead...and Right on Schedule -- Sirian High Council -- Patricia Cori

Sayer Ji, Green Med InfoA concerning new study suggests that decades of medical procedures performed on infants without pain management has had deeply traumatizing effects.A groundbreaking study published in eLife titled, “fMRI reveals neural activity overlap between adult and infant pain,” demonstrates that the infant pain experience, despite long held assumptions to the contrary, closely resembles that of adults.Researchers discovered that when  [...]

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Fresh fossil studies push the dawn of man back to 2.8 million years

(Reuters) - A 2.8-million-year-old jawbone fossil with five intact teeth unearthed in an Ethiopian desert is pushing back the dawn of humankind by about half a million years.Scientists said on Wednesday the fossil represents the oldest known repres...

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Researchers discover fossils of tiny mammals that frolicked among dinosaurs

The little tree-climber, Agilodocodon scansorius


Excerpt from 
sciencerecorder.com



Two new fossil discoveries push the timeline back on the appearance of burrowing and tree-climbing mammals. Fossils of the shrew-sized creatures found in China date to the age of the dinosaurs and show that mammals of that period were already highly specialized, well-performing animals. One of the rodent-like animals was likely a long-clawed tree-dweller, while the other was shovel-pawed tunnel-digger.

 
The little tree-climber, Agilodocodon scansorius, is the earliest arboreal mammal ever discovered. A report published this week in Science Magazine highlights its traits suited for its habitat, including long claws, spade-like front teeth for gnawing into bark, and flexible elbows and ankles. It is believed to have weighed up to 40 grams, a bit less than a typical hotdog without condiments, and lived about 165 million years ago in what is Mongolia today.

“When we got into the study of Agilodocodon, we realized that the outline for the horny sheath of the claws is preserved,” Zhe-Xi Luo, professor of organismal biology and anatomy at the University of Chicago, said in an interview. “Those soft tissues are not preserved in the vast majority of mammals. It has a very long, curved narrow claw — one feature to show that it is a good climber.” 


Image: Artist's rendition Docofossor brachydactylus
Docofossor brachydactylus


In a report published in the same issue of Science, the other mammal, called Docofossor brachydactylus, is described to have stood no more than 9 centimeters tall and weighed only 17 grams, about the size of a juvenile mouse. Docfossor is the earliest underground-dwelling mammal ever found and shares similarities with the African golden mole, having short, wide digits suitable for digging. The little digger is estimated to have lived some 160 million years ago in what is today Ganggou Fossil Site in China’s Hebei province.

Both fossils are of creatures that belong to the order Docodonta. The discoveries are the first to provide full skeletons of this order, which had previously been characterized by evidence from fossils of teeth, jaws, and bits of skull.

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Did Michelangelo conceal brain stem in painting of the Separation of Light from Darkness?






Excerpt from livescience.com

Michelangelo's depiction of God's throat in one panel of his Sistine Chapel fresco is awkward, which is odd for an artist so devoted to the study of anatomy. Now researchers have a theory to explain why: Michelangelo embedded an image of a human brain stem in God’s throat, they find.
The Renaissance artist is known to have studied human anatomy by dissecting cadavers when he was a young man, and continued until late in his 89 years. This practice informed his powerful depictions of the human and the divine. 

But one panel of his Sistine Chapel frescoes contains an oddly lit and awkward image of God's neck and head as seen from below. The light illuminating the neck was different from that of the rest of the painting. Also, God's beard is foreshortened and appears to roll up along the sides of his jaw, and his bulbous neck has prompted speculation that Michelangelo intended to portray God with a goiter, or abnormally enlarged thyroid gland. 

Two researchers – one a neurosurgeon, the other a medical illustrator – writing in the May issue of the journal Neurosurgery have another, more flattering theory. In this panel, which portrays the Separation of Light from Darkness, from the Book of Genesis, Michelangelo embedded a ventral view of the brainstem, they wrote. 

Using a digital analysis, they compared the shadows outlining the features of God’s neck and a photograph of a model of this section of the brain, which connects with the spinal cord, and found a close correspondence. 

This is not the first anatomical image found hidden in the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel. In an article published in 1990, Frank Lynn Meshberger, a gynecologist, identified an outline of the human brain in the Creation of Adam. Among other details, he noted that the shroud surrounding God had the shape of the cerebrum, or the upper part of the brain. A decade later, another researcher pointed out a kidney motif. 

"We speculated that having used the brain motif successfully in the Creation of Adam almost a year earlier, Michelangelo wanted to once again associate the figure of God with a brain motif in the iconographically critical Separation of Light from Darkness," wrote authors Ian Suk, a medical illustrator, and neurosurgeon Rafael Tamargo, both of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

They do point out "the perils of overinterpreting a masterpiece," saying that not all art historians and other viewers will agree with their conclusions. Even so, they say their analysis, along with historical records, backs the interpretation.


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Stunning 3-D Models Reveal Bizarre Double Star Ready to Explode


Picture of Eta Carinae star in the southern constellation of Carina
The supermassive star pair Eta Carinae erupted in the 1840s and produced this double-lobed cloud of dust called the Homunculus Nebula.

Excerpt from news.nationalgeographic.com

The star system Eta Carinae sends out the brightest flares yet recorded.

SEATTLE—Armed with a 3-D printer, a supercomputer, and several space telescopes, astronomers have gotten their best look yet at one of the galaxy's biggest, weirdest double star systems.

Surprising new observations of the system, known as Eta Carinae, described Wednesday at the American Astronomical Society's annual winter meeting, include a set of oddly bright flares that might signal a change in the two stars' billowing stellar winds. What's more, 3-D printed simulations show unexpected anatomy within the star system's churning, tempestuous center.

Scientists have kept a close eye on Eta Carinae since the 1840s, when a series of unexpected eruptions briefly transformed it into the brightest star in the southern sky. At any time, the unstable system could explode in a spectacular supernova. (Don't worry—Earth will be fine. But the light show will be unforgettable.)

The new observations don't pin down when Eta Carinae might explode, but they are helping astronomers better understand the turbulent pair.

"It's not only the most massive and luminous object that's close to us, but it's also extremely erratic," says astronomer Michael Corcoran of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, in Greenbelt, Maryland.

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Study: Neanderthals were not human after all, but separate species

  Excerpt from  dailydigestnews.comThe nose knows whether or not Neanderthals are members of our own species. Turns out the differences in the Neanderthal nose compared to that of modern day humans could be substantial enough to consider N...

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These joints are made for walking ~ Keeping your joints healthy using Newton’s laws to anatomy and biomechanics

Professor Anthony Bull's inaugural lecture explores how you can keep your joints healthy by applying Newton's laws to anatomy and biomechanics, drawing on examples from 20 years of work in the fields of sports, orthopaedics and physiotherapy. Record...

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Cannabis & The Pineal Gland : Turn On The Third Eye

The Pineal Gland or the 'Seat of the Soul' as described by Rene Descartes, is the focal point of our spiritual guiding system which makes us go beyond the five senses of rationality and become multisensory, tuned into and aware of higher dimensions of consciousness within a holographic cosmos. Cannabis or Marijuana among other psychedelics facilitates the activation of the pineal gland and helps turn on the third eye or the mind's eye directing our spiritual evolution to wholeness.The pineal gl [...]

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Study Proves Extrasensory Mind-to-Mind Interaction at a Distance

A group of international neuroscientists and robotics engineers have discovered for the first time that human brains can indeed ‘talk’ directly to one another, even from thousands of miles away.A brain-to-brain communication study conducted in coordination with Harvard Medical School has proven that extrasensory mind-to mind interaction can happen over great distances by leveraging different pathways in the mind.The study, coauthored by Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Director of th [...]

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Does DMT Play a Role in the Expansion of Consciousness and Open a Doorway to the Afterlife?

Forget about every other psychedelic for just one minute, because it’s time we have a serious talk about DMT.It’s time we discuss the absolute profundity of an experience that changes people’s lives forever. In a matter of seconds, everything you know about the world in front of you is ripped away, catapulting your awareness into a dimension of foreign abstraction and pure astonishment.For most, there are no words accurate enough to describe what happens when you experience th [...]

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Scientists Experiment With Altering Memories in Mice ~ Rewiring Changes Bad Memories to Good


By Gautam Naik

In experiments on mice, scientists rewired the circuits of the brain and changed the animals' bad memories into good ones.
The rewriting of the memory wasn't done with drugs but by using light to control the activity of brain cells. While science is a long way from achieving a similar feat in people, it adds to a body of research that is starting to uncover the physiological basis of memory.
"This could pave the way to rewire the circuits in the brain" to treat disorders such as post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression or other psychiatric illnesses, said Roger Redondo, neuroscientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and lead author of the study, published Wednesday in the journal Nature.
A memory is created when a past experience becomes encoded in a network of neurons in the brain. The memory is recalled when the neurons fire in a particular sequence.
Some aspects of the memory can endure a long time, while others are more fickle. "The memory of a romantic first meal out with a partner may take on a different mood when the relationship falters," said Tomonori Takeuchi and Richard Morris at the University of Edinburgh, in an article accompanying the study. "In these cases, memory of the place remains accurate, but the positive associations with that place are lost."
White mouse. Published Credit: Photo Researchers/Getty Images White mouse. Published Credit: Photo Researchers/Getty Images Getty Images/Photo Researchers R
Dr. Redondo and his MIT colleagues set out to answer two questions: Which specific circuits in the brain store our good and bad memories? And can a good memory be changed to a bad one; and vice versa?
The researchers established that the "where" of a memory is encoded in cells found in a brain structure called the hippocampus, while the "emotion" linked to it —whether one feels good or bad about the place—is embedded in a brain area called the amygdala. The two parts of the brain are connected.
The MIT team wanted to see if it could change the association between the "where" of the memory and the "emotion" linked with it. To get there, they used a cutting-edge technique known as optogenetics, which uses light to control brain cells that have been genetically sensitized to it.
In the case of the mice, a fiber-optic cable was inserted via a tiny hole in the animal's skull, allowing a laser beam to be fired through the wire to activate individual neurons in the brain.
They began by giving one set of male mice fearful memories (via a small electric shock to the foot) and by providing other mice with pleasurable memories (by allowing them to interact with female mice). By firing the laser into the mouse brain, the scientists could identify the specific cells that were activated when each of the two memories were formed.
That was followed by a "place-preference" test. A laser was fired to the mouse brain when the animal entered a designated area, which activated the previously identified brain cells. When this was done, the fear-conditioned mice moved away from the target zone, while the pleasure-conditioned mice lingered in that area longer because they recalled the positive memory.
The next day, the fear-conditioned mice were placed in a different area. There, they were allowed to interact with female mice, while the fear-associated memory cells were artificially stimulated with the laser. The scientists hoped that the pleasurable exposure to the female mice would rewire the males' previously fear-conditioned circuits.
To test this, the male mice were returned to the original target zone. When the laser was again used to stimulate the neurons, they now lingered longer in the target zone. This indicated that their original fear-conditioned circuit had been changed to one associated with pleasure.
The researchers said they were able to do the opposite as well—change a pleasurable memory in mice into one associated with fear.
"We identified the circuit, and we've showed that we can manipulate such circuits artificially," said Dr. Redondo.
It isn't practical to fire lasers into human brains under a similar setup. But the Nature experiment could inspire other approaches that may prove medically useful. For example, now that the memory-forming circuit has been identified, it may be possible to influence it by other means, such as using a drug.

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