Stephen Hawking, the scientist and not Stephen King, the novelist has made some dire predictions about the coming conquest of humans by their own creations, robots. King can write something about this in effect but he will have a hard time surpassing the number one robot movie of all time, the terminator. Humans’ dependence on electronic technology to make their life comfortable and much easier may one day backfire on them. The scientist said that humans have become so complacent that they may not survive in the future. In a conference held just recently, Hawking noted that robots and artificial intelligence could take over the world and conquer mankind in the next 10 decades. By 2115, the world will cease to exist as we know it today. While speaking at the Zeitgeist conference held in London, Hawking explained that humans need to come to terms with how they should go forward and not fall into complacency with how robotics and artificial intelligence are taking over without them even knowing it. “One can imagine such technology outsmarting financial markets, out-inventing human researchers, out-manipulating human leaders, and developing weapons we cannot even understand. Whereas the short-term impact of AI depends on who controls it, the long-term impact depends on whether it can be controlled at all”, he continued. (Hawking continued to explain3ed that technology advancements that outsmarts financial markets, creating more and better inventions than humans, putting world leaders under its influence and coming up with advanced weaponry are slowly putting humans at a disadvantage. Researches should be made considering what AI would mean for humans. .Creation of Ai would be in no doubt the greatest achievement of what humans can do if they can do it. It might also their last act if they’re not careful about it. Humans’ have notoriously slow biological evolution and their ability to challenge the AI is almost none existent compared to what the machines can muster. Elon Musk agrees with Hawking about the dangers posed by AIs.
May 15, 2015 / Greg Giles / Comments Off on Stephen Hawking Says Artificial Intelligence Will Take over Humanity in the Near Future
Excerpt from regaltribune.com Technology has advanced so much that some scientists fear that one day robots will take over the world and humans will not be able to do anything about it. One of those scientists is Stephen Hawking, the most famous physicist and cosmologist in the world. Hawking stated during a recent conference that robots and artificial intelligence in particular, could conquer humanity in the next 100 years. The renowned scientist spoke at the Zeitgeist conference held in London, saying that computers will one day overtake us humans with their artificial intelligence and this could happen in less than 100 years. Hawking added that if this happens, humans need to be sure that the robots have similar goals, or else. But this is not the first time the author of “A Brief History of Time” made this kind of “doomy” statements about the future of humanity at the robotic hands of artificial intelligence. At the beginning of this year, Stephen Hawking expressed his opinions on this matter, saying that artificial intelligence will advance so much that it could bring the end of human race. Also, in an interview for BBC Hawking said that even though A.I. is not a threat to us humans at the present time, in the future the robots would get more intelligent, bigger and much stronger than their makers, the humans. The scientist added that robots would start to redesign themselves and will evolve at an increasing rate that humans will not be able to keep the pace. Hawking added that:
“Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete, and would be superseded.”
And Hawking is not the only famous scientist who has a gloomy vision regarding our future. Ellon Musk, Tesla Motors CEO, said that artificial intelligence poses a real threat to human race. According to Musk, humans must be extremely careful about artificial intelligence, because it could turn out to be our “biggest existential threat”. Musk even compared A.I. with a “demon”. However, not every scientist envisions a dark future for human race. While many think of artificial intelligence as the driving force behind robots, A.I. is also used to power many devices, such as smartphones, tablets, laptops and apps. Artificial intelligence is also used to protect emails from receiving spam. Giant companies like Google and Facebook are currently working on developing new systems, which will one day lead to advanced artificial intelligence.
Scientists using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have discovered that the immense halo of gas enveloping the Andromeda galaxy, our nearest massive galactic neighbor, is about six times larger and 1,000 times more massive than previously measured. The dark, nearly invisible halo stretches about a million light-years from its host galaxy, halfway to our own Milky Way galaxy. This finding promises to tell astronomers more about the evolution and structure of majestic giant spirals, one of the most common types of galaxies in the universe.
"Halos are the gaseous atmospheres of galaxies. The properties of these gaseous halos control the rate at which stars form in galaxies according to models of galaxy formation," explained the lead investigator, Nicolas Lehner of the University of Notre Dame, Indiana. The gargantuan halo is estimated to contain half the mass of the stars in the Andromeda galaxy itself, in the form of a hot, diffuse gas. If it could be viewed with the naked eye, the halo would be 100 times the diameter of the full Moon in the sky. This is equivalent to the patch of sky covered by two basketballs held at arm's length.
The Andromeda galaxy, also known as M31, lies 2.5 million light-years away and looks like a faint spindle, about 6 times the diameter of the full Moon. It is considered a near-twin to the Milky Way galaxy.
Because the gas in Andromeda's halo is dark, the team looked at bright background objects through the gas and observed how the light changed. This is a bit like looking at a glowing light at the bottom of a pool at night. The ideal background "lights" for such a study are quasars, which are very distant bright cores of active galaxies powered by black holes. The team used 18 quasars residing far behind Andromeda to probe how material is distributed well beyond the visible disk of the galaxy. Their findings were published in the May 10, 2015, edition of The Astrophysical Journal.
Earlier research from Hubble's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS)-Halos program studied 44 distant galaxies and found halos like Andromeda's, but never before has such a massive halo been seen in a neighboring galaxy. Because the previously studied galaxies were much farther away, they appeared much smaller on the sky. Only one quasar could be detected behind each faraway galaxy, providing only one light anchor point to map their halo size and structure. With its close proximity to Earth and its correspondingly large footprint on the sky, Andromeda provides a far more extensive sampling of a lot of background quasars. "As the light from the quasars travels toward Hubble, the halo's gas will absorb some of that light and make the quasar appear a little darker in just a very small wavelength range," explains co-investigator J. Christopher Howk, also of Notre Dame. "By measuring the dip in brightness in that range, we can tell how much halo gas from M31 there is between us and that quasar."
The scientists used Hubble's unique capability to study the ultraviolet light from the quasars. Ultraviolet light is absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, which makes it difficult to observe with a ground-based telescope. The team drew from about 5 years' worth of observations stored in the Hubble data archive to conduct this research. Many previous Hubble campaigns have used quasars to study gas much farther away than — but in the general direction of — Andromeda, so a treasure trove of data already existed.
But where did the giant halo come from? Large-scale simulations of galaxies suggest that the halo formed at the same time as the rest of Andromeda. The team also determined that it is enriched in elements much heavier than hydrogen and helium, and the only way to get these heavy elements is from exploding stars called supernovae. The supernovae erupt in Andromeda's star-filled disk and violently blow these heavier elements far out into space. Over Andromeda's lifetime, nearly half of all the heavy elements made by its stars have been expelled far beyond the galaxy's 200,000-light-year-diameter stellar disk.
What does this mean for our own galaxy? Because we live inside the Milky Way, scientists cannot determine whether or not such an equally massive and extended halo exists around our galaxy. It's a case of not being able to see the forest for the trees. If the Milky Way does possess a similarly huge halo, the two galaxies' halos may be nearly touching already and quiescently merging long before the two massive galaxies collide. Hubble observations indicate that the Andromeda and Milky Way galaxies will merge to form a giant elliptical galaxy beginning about 4 billion years from now.