Tag: Johannesburg

Ancient rocks show life could have flourished on Earth 3.2 billion years ago


photo of red rocks and blue sky
The oldest samples are sedimentary rocks that formed 3.2 billion years ago in
northwestern Australia. They contain chemical evidence for nitrogen
fixation by microbes.R. Buick / UW



Excerpt from
washington.edu

A spark from a lightning bolt, interstellar dust, or a subsea volcano could have triggered the very first life on Earth.
But what happened next? Life can exist without oxygen, but without plentiful nitrogen to build genes – essential to viruses, bacteria and all other organisms – life on the early Earth would have been scarce.

The ability to use atmospheric nitrogen to support more widespread life was thought to have appeared roughly 2 billion years ago. Now research from the University of Washington looking at some of the planet’s oldest rocks finds evidence that 3.2 billion years ago, life was already pulling nitrogen out of the air and converting it into a form that could support larger communities.

“People always had the idea that the really ancient biosphere was just tenuously clinging on to this inhospitable planet, and it wasn’t until the emergence of nitrogen fixation that suddenly the biosphere become large and robust and diverse,” said co-author Roger Buick, a UW professor of Earth and space sciences. “Our work shows that there was no nitrogen crisis on the early Earth, and therefore it could have supported a fairly large and diverse biosphere.”
The results were published Feb. 16 in Nature.

The authors analyzed 52 samples ranging in age from 2.75 to 3.2 billion years old, collected in South Africa and northwestern Australia. These are some of the oldest and best-preserved rocks on the planet. The rocks were formed from sediment deposited on continental margins, so are free of chemical irregularities that would occur near a subsea volcano. They also formed before the atmosphere gained oxygen, roughly 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago, and so preserve chemical clues that have disappeared in modern rocks.

Even the oldest samples, 3.2 billion years old – three-quarters of the way back to the birth of the planet – showed chemical evidence that life was pulling nitrogen out of the air. The ratio of heavier to lighter nitrogen atoms fits the pattern of nitrogen-fixing enzymes contained in single-celled organisms, and does not match any chemical reactions that occur in the absence of life.

“Imagining that this really complicated process is so old, and has operated in the same way for 3.2 billion years, I think is fascinating,” said lead author Eva Stüeken, who did the work as part of her UW doctoral research. “It suggests that these really complicated enzymes apparently formed really early, so maybe it’s not so difficult for these enzymes to evolve.”

Genetic analysis of nitrogen-fixing enzymes have placed their origin at between 1.5 and 2.2 billion years ago.

“This is hard evidence that pushes it back a further billion years,” Buick said.

Fixing nitrogen means breaking a tenacious triple bond that holds nitrogen atoms in pairs in the atmosphere and joining a single nitrogen to a molecule that is easier for living things to use. The chemical signature of the rocks suggests that nitrogen was being broken by an enzyme based on molybdenum, the most common of the three types of nitrogen-fixing enzymes that exist now. 

Molybdenum is now abundant because oxygen reacts with rocks to wash it into the ocean, but its source on the ancient Earth – before the atmosphere contained oxygen to weather rocks – is more mysterious.

The authors hypothesize that this may be further evidence that some early life may have existed in single-celled layers on land, exhaling small amounts of oxygen that reacted with the rock to release molybdenum to the water.

“We’ll never find any direct evidence of land scum one cell thick, but this might be giving us indirect evidence that the land was inhabited,” Buick said. “Microbes could have crawled out of the ocean and lived in a slime layer on the rocks on land, even before 3.2 billion years ago.”

Future work will look at what else could have limited the growth of life on the early Earth. Stüeken has begun a UW postdoctoral position funded by NASA to look at trace metals such as zinc, copper and cobalt to see if one of them controlled the growth of ancient life.

Other co-authors are Bradley Guy at the University of Johannesburg in South Africa, who provided some samples from gold mines, and UW graduate student Matthew Koehler. The research was funded by NASA, the UW’s Virtual Planetary Laboratory, the Geological Society of America and the Agouron Institute.

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Big Eureka – The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman

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~ The Third Initiatory Gateway of Light‏ ~

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Discovering the Oldest Man-made Structures on Earth.

A 10-part article by Michael Tellinger

June 2009

Part 1 of 10

Exposing the Lost City of ENKI
 
Scholars have told us that the first civilisation on Earth emerged between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates in a land called Sumer some 6000 years ago. Recent archaeological findings suggest that the Sumerians may have inherited some of their knowledge and symbolisms from an earlier civilisation that emerged many thousands of years earlier in southern Africa – the cradle of humankind. The constant references to southern Africa in the Sumerian texts as a ‘time before time’ leaves very little doubt that this was the case.
Why have we been so resistant to this information?
Is it our arrogance?
Or are we just scared of change?

The discovery of the oldest statue of the Hawk Head of Horus, about 260,000 years old; petroglyphs of winged disks with a cross, and two pyramids aligned to Adam’s Calendar and the rise of Orion, are forcing us to rewrite human history. Let us cast the dogma of our existing knowledge aside and embrace the new evidence.


 
Adam’s Calendar – Should actually  be called ENKI’s calendar. The flagship ruin at the centre of the largest and most mysterious ancient city on Earht.. The Sumerian tablets tell us that this was a special place of observation built by ENKI in the deep ABZU (South Africa) around 260,000 years ago. Before the ADAMU was created.
When I wrote and released ‘Slave Species of god’ I never realised the kind of impact it would have on people all over the world. I am quite overwhelmed to have received feedback from readers in over 20 countries, describing how it has changed their lives and allowed them to question without fear of being punished by some invisible old man in the sky. But the biggest surprise has been meeting Johan Heine at one of my talks which opened up the floodgates of the next phase of my research.
When Johan first introduced me to the ancient stone ruins of southern Africa, I had no idea of the incredible discoveries we would make in the year or two that followed. The photographs, artefacts and evidence we have accumulated points unquestionably to a lost and never-before-seen civilisation that predates all others – not by just a few hundred years, or a few thousand years… but many thousands of years. These discoveries are so staggering that they will not be easily digested by the mainstream historical and archaeological fraternity, as we have already experienced. It will require a complete paradigm shift in how we view our human history.
I see myself as a fairly open-minded chap but I will admit that it took me well over a year for the penny to drop, and for me to realise that we are actually dealing with the oldest structures ever built by humans on Earth.
The main reason for this is that we have been taught that nothing of significance has ever come from southern Africa. That the powerful civilisations all emerged in Sumeria and Egypt and other places. We are told that until the settlement of the BANTU people from the north, which was supposed to have started sometime in the 12th century AD, this part of the world was filled by hunter gatherers and so-called Bushmen, who did not make any major contributions in technology or civilisation.
Little did we realise that long before Egypt and long before Sumeria, there was a huge ancient city in what the Sumerian tablets call the ABZU (southern Africa). The lost and the first city of ENKI – the Sumerian deity and creator of humankind who was responsible for cloning the species we call Homo sapiens. ABZU is often incorrectly translated as “HELL” by those who grapple with the true meaning of mythology. This is far from the truth because the ABZU was simply known as the land below the equator, where the gold came from. Sumerian tablets tell us clearly that ENKI established a base in the ABZU (southern Africa). This base grew into a very large ancient city occupied by the early human slaves who toiled in the gold mines.
We believe we have now discovered this large city he created. At its peak it was larger than modern-day Johannesburg, covering over 20,000 square kilometres. It consists of well over 100,000 stone ruins still today. These were linked by ancient roads and places of work and worship. ENKI controlled his gold mining operations from here and the fortress of Great Zimbabwe was his headquarters. The evidence of gold mining is everywhere in this part of the world and not only do historic records point to this as being the first place that gold was extracted by humans, new scientific research is there to support it.
Our research has shown that the ancient ruins of South Africa and Zimbabwe go back to around 260,000 years the very first appearance of humans on Earth. I will take you on a journey of discovery as we experienced it over the past 2 years, since late 2007.

End of part 1.
Please click here to share my articles with your friends who you know will appreciate them.
Keep exploring – spread the word.
Michael Tellinger

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