Tag: nova (page 1 of 2)

Gaia Portal ~ Meadows of Peace are Sown August 31 2016

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Arcángel Miguel, Notas del pasado año, el Stargate 7 de agosto de, 2016

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Archangel Michael, Last Year’s Notes on the Stargate August-07 2016

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Gaia Portal August 03 2016 Galactic Federation of Light

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Gaia Portal November 06 2015 Galactic Federation of Light

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Gaia Portal September 6 2015 Galactic Federation of Light

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Galactic Federation of Light Gaia Portal 6 May 2015

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Hubble’s Other Telescope And The Day It Rocked Our World

The Hooker 100-inch reflecting telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory, just outside Los Angeles. Edwin Hubble's chair, on an elevating platform, is visible at left. A view from this scope first told Hubble our galaxy isn't the only one.
The Hooker 100-inch reflecting telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory, just outside Los Angeles. Edwin Hubble's chair, on an elevating platform, is visible at left. A view from this scope first told Hubble our galaxy isn't the only one.
Courtesy of The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science Collection at the Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.


Excerpt from hnpr.org

The Hubble Space Telescope this week celebrates 25 years in Earth's orbit. In that time the telescope has studied distant galaxies, star nurseries, planets in our solar system and planets orbiting other stars.

But, even with all that, you could argue that the astronomer for whom the telescope is named made even more important discoveries — with far less sophisticated equipment.

A young Edwin Hubble at Mount Wilson's 100-inch telescope circa 1922, ready to make history.i
A young Edwin Hubble at Mount Wilson's 100-inch telescope circa 1922, ready to make history.
Edwin Hubble Papers/Courtesy of Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.


In the 1920s, Edwin Hubble was working with the 100-inch Hooker telescope on Mount Wilson, just outside Los Angeles. At the time, it was the largest telescope in the world.

On a chilly evening, I climb up to the dome of that telescope with operator Nik Arkimovich and ask him to show me where Hubble would sit when he was using the telescope. Arkimovich points to a platform near the top of the telescope frame.

"He's got an eyepiece with crosshairs on it," Arkimovich explains. The telescope has gears and motors that let it track a star as it moves across the sky. "He's got a paddle that allows him to make minor adjustments. And his job is to keep the star in the crosshairs for maybe eight hours."

"It's certainly much, much easier today," says John Mulchaey, acting director of the observatories at Carnegie Institution of Science. "Now we sit in control rooms. The telescopes operate brilliantly on their own, so we don't have to worry about tracking and things like this."

Today, astronomers use digital cameras to catch the light from stars and other celestial objects. In Hubble's day, Mulchaey says, they used glass plates.

"At the focus of the telescope you would put a glass plate that has an emulsion layer on it that is actually sensitive to light," he says. At the end of an observing run, the plates would be developed, much like the film in a camera.

The headquarters of the Carnegie observatories is at the foot of Mount Wilson, in the city of Pasadena. It's where Hubble worked during the day.

A century's worth of plates are stored here in the basement. Mulchaey opens a large steel door and ushers me into a room filled with dozens of file cabinets.

"Why don't we go take a look at Hubble's famous Andromeda plates," Mulchaey suggests.

The plates are famous for a reason: They completely changed our view of the universe. Mulchaey points to a plate mounted on a light stand.

"This is a rare treat for you," he says. "This plate doesn't see the light of day very often."


This glass side of a photographic plate shows where Hubble marked novas. The red VAR! in the upper right corner marks his discovery of the first Cepheid variable star — a star that told him the Andromeda galaxy isn't part of our Milky Way.i
This glass side of a photographic plate shows where Hubble marked novas. The red VAR! in the upper right corner marks his discovery of the first Cepheid variable star — a star that told him the Andromeda galaxy isn't part of our Milky Way.
Courtesy of the Carnegie Observatories 
To the untrained eye, there's nothing terribly remarkable about the plate. But Mulchaey says what it represents is the most important discovery in astronomy since Galileo.

The plate shows the spiral shape of the Andromeda galaxy. Hubble was looking for exploding stars called novas in Andromeda. Hubble marked these on the plate with the letter "N."

"The really interesting thing here," Mulchaey says, "is there's one with the N crossed out in red — and he's changed the N to VAR with an exclamation point."

Hubble had realized that what he was seeing wasn't a nova. VAR stands for a type of star known as a Cepheid variable. It's a kind of star that allows you to make an accurate determination of how far away something is. This Cepheid variable showed that the Andromeda galaxy isn't a part of our galaxy.

At the time, most people thought the Milky Way was it — the only galaxy in existence.

"And what this really shows is that the universe is much, much bigger than anybody realizes," Mulchaey says.
It was another blow to our human conceit that we are the center of the universe.

Hubble went on to use the Mount Wilson telescope to show the universe was expanding, a discovery so astonishing that Hubble had a hard time believing it himself.

If Hubble could make such important discoveries with century-old equipment, it makes you wonder what he might have turned up if he'd had a chance to use the space telescope that bears his name.

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Mystery space explosion in 1670 solved


Nova Vulpeculae 1670


By Kathy Fey

A mystery explosion in the night sky turns out to have been caused by colliding stars.




One of history’s mysteries revolved around a strange explosion observed in the sky in 1670, long thought to have been the first nova on record. Recent research suggests that this enigmatic event was actually a rare stellar collision.

According to a report by Astronomy Magazine, the so-called Nova Vulpeculae of 1670 was more likely the collision of two stars, which shines brighter than a nova but not as brightly as a supernova.

Observations made with various telescopes including the Submillimeter Array, the Effelsburg radio telescope and APEX have revealed the more unusual nature of the light source – a violent collision.

When the event first occurred, it would have been visible from Earth with the naked eye. Now, submillimeter telescopes are needed to detect the traces left in the aftermath of the event.

When first observed, 17th century astronomers described what they saw as a new star appearing in the head of Cygnus, the swan constellation.

“For many years, this object was thought to be a nova, but the more it was studied, the less it looked like an ordinary nova, or indeed any other kind of exploding star,” said Tomasz Kaminski of the European Southern Observatory.

Having observed the area of the supposed nova with both submillimeter and radio wavelengths, scientists “have found that the surroundings of the remnant are bathed in a cool gas rich in molecules with a very unusual chemical composition,” said Kaminski.

Researchers concluded that the amount of cool material they observed was too much to have been produced by a nova. The nature of the gas debris best fit with the rare scenario of two stars merging in an explosive collision.

The team’s report was published in the journal Nature.

Karl Menten of the Max Planck Institute called the discovery “the most fun – something that is completely unexpected.”

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The Illusion of Time ~ A Nova Documentary

Is time real? Does it really exist? How accurate is our perception of time? Click to zoom

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Exploding Stellar Fireball Caught On Camera For The First Time



This is an artist's conception of a star system responsible for a nova. A stream of matter is being drawn from the donor star (right) by the compact white dwarf (left).
This is an artist’s conception of a star system responsible for a nova. A stream of matter is being drawn from the donor star (right) by the compact white dwarf (left). (Credit: David A. Hardy/ astroart.org)


Excerpt from forbes.com
By  Brid-Aine Parnell 


Astronomers have captured the first timelapse images of a thermonuclear fireball exploding out of a nova star, allowing them to track the event as it happened.

An international team of researchers worked together to map the nova eruption, a baby brother to a supernova explosion, and publish the results in Nature.

“Although novae often play second fiddle in the popular imagination to their more famous big cousins – the supernovae – they are a truly remarkable celestial phenomenon,” said Professor Peter Tuthill of the University of Sydney’s Institute for Astronomy.

Novae happen when an exotic, compact star called a white dwarf strips the matter from a nearby companion star with its intense gravitational field.

Like a little stellar mosquito, the white dwarf continually sucks hydrogen from its partner, forming an ocean on its surface. After drawing about as much mass as the entire planet Saturn, the pressure reaches a critical point, then boom!

“The stellar surface turns into one titanic hydrogen bomb hurling a fireball out into space and propelling a formerly dim, obscure star system into prominence as a nova in our night skies,” Professor Tuthill explained.

The array was able to produce the first pictures of a nova at the early fireball stage from one that erupted in the Delphinus constellation last year, from Earth’s point of view. In actual fact, the star went nova 15,000 years ago, but the star is 14,800 light years from our Sun so we only spotted it last August.

The observations were clearer than any before and showed how the structure of the ejected material evolves as the gas expands and then cools. From this study, it now appears that this expansion is more complicated than the simple models previously predicted.

During the first observation, the fireball was roughly the size of Earth’s orbit. When last measured, 43 days after detonation, it had expanded nearly 20-fold at a velocity of more than 600 kilometres per second to nearly the size of Neptune’s orbit, the outermost planet of our Solar System.

“These new data allow us to study in detail exactly how the fireball evolves as the gas expands and cools. It seems like the ride is a lot more complicated and bumpy for the gas than the simple models used previously would have predicted,” said Dr Theo ten Brummelaar of Georgia State University.

Perhaps most surprisingly, the astronomers found that despite the ferocity of the detonation on the white dwarf’s surface, the star itself emerges almost unscathed – leaving it free to start the whole process all over again.

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Antarctic Explorer’s Journal Found In Melting Ice ~ Smithsonian Video


A snapshot of the failed Terra Nova expedition of 1910

George Murray Levick served as a photographer, zoologist and surgeon with the North Party

smithsonian.com
October 24, 2014

Every summer the thick Antarctic ice melts just a little bit, and the coursing water digs channels into the ice. This past summer, says Lizzie Meek with the Antarctic Heritage Trust in New Zealand, this melting ice unveiled a treasured: the lost journal of Antarctic explorer George Murray Levick.

Picked out from the ice as a clump of soaked paper, conservationists have now been able to reconstruct and digitize the lost notebook, which was carried by one of the team that set out on Robert Falcon Scott's failed Terra Nova expedition.

“Levick was a part of Scott’s 1910-1913 expedition and a member of the Northern Party,” says a release from the Antarctic Heritage Trust (New Zealand).

Members of Scott's Party
The notebook contains his pencil notes detailing the date, subjects and exposure details for the photographs he took during 1911 while at Cape Adare before undergoing a harsh winter in an ice cave on Inexpressible Island.
On the Terra Nova mission, from 1910 to 1913, Scott lost his life in his bid to reach the South Pole. Levick survived, says the trust, going on to found the British Schools Exploring Society.

Click to zoom

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Galactic Federation of Light Gaia Portal May 21 2014

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