Tag: particle physics

High-Energy Cosmic Neutrinos Observed At The Geographic South Pole

An team of international experts has announced a new observation of high-energy neutrino particles using an instrument funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The particles from beyond our galaxy have been detected at the geographic South Pole, using a massive instrument buried deep in ice.The scientists from the IceCube Collaboration, a research team with headquarters at the Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, pub [...]

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New data that fundamental physics constants underlie life-enabling universe

Excerpt from spacedaily.com For nearly half a century, theoretical physicists have made a series of discoveries that certain constants in fundamental physics seem extraordinarily fine-tuned to allow for the emergence of a life-enabling universe.Thi...

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Dark matter may be massive & collide with Earth every billion years

 Excerpt from zeenews.india.com A new study has revealed that no evidence has been found that dark matter is made of tiny exotic particles, and it might be more massive.Researchers from Case Western Reserve University found that dark matter ...

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Are There Hidden Dimensions in our Universe? Unraveling Hidden Mysteries with Harvard Professor Dr. Lisa Randall ~ Video Lecture

Warped Passages: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Universe's Hidden Dimensions is a book by Lisa Randall, published in 2005, about particle physics in general and additional dimensions of space (cf. Kaluza--Klein theory) in particular. The book has m...

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Another reality bending discovery? Princeton researchers spot particle that behaves like matter and antimatter at the SAME TIME

Excerpt from  theregister.co.ukScientists at Princeton are reporting the first observation of Majorana fermion, a particle first predicted over 70 years ago that behaves like matter and antimatter at the same time.Finding the Majorana fermion on...

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Quantum: The Microscopic Universe ~ Quantum computers may one day transform our world

Within our immense universe lies a lesser-known world of tiny particles. From strange neutrinos that pass right through matter to mysterious objects with names like MACHOs and WIMPs. Find out how this miniature world might hold the key to understan...

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A Charming Explaination of the Higgs Boson, or ‘God Particle’

The Hadron Collider, where the search for the God particle continuesClick to zoom

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Steven Hawking: ‘God Particle’ Could Wipe Out the Universe

The Hadron Collider


news.discovery.com

Stephen Hawking bet Gordon Kane $100 that physicists would not discover the Higgs boson. After losing that bet when physicists detected the particle in 2012, Hawking lamented the discovery, saying it made physics less interesting. Now, in the preface to a new collection of essays and lectures called "Starmus," the famous theoretical physicist is warning that the particle could one day be responsible for the destruction of the known universe.

Hawking is not the only scientist who thinks so. The theory of a Higgs boson doomsday, where a quantum fluctuation creates a vacuum "bubble" that expands through space and wipes out the universe, has existed for a while. However, scientists don't think it could happen anytime soon.

Scientists confirm the discovery of the Higgs boson. Find out why this is -- and isn't -- the greatest thing ever. 
"Most likely it will take 10 to the 100 years [a 1 followed by 100 zeroes] for this to happen, so probably you shouldn't sell your house and you should continue to pay your taxes," Joseph Lykken, a theoretical physicist at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, said during his lecture at the SETI Institute on Sept. 2. "On the other hand it may already happened, and the bubble might be on its way here now. And you won't know because it's going at the speed of light so there's not going to be any warning." 

The Higgs boson, sometimes referred to as the 'god particle,' much to the chagrin of scientists who prefer the official name, is a tiny particle that researchers long suspected existed. Its discovery lends strong support to the Standard Model of particle physics, or the known rules of particle physics that scientists believe govern the basic building blocks of matter. The Higgs boson particle is so important to the Standard Model because it signals the existence of the Higgs field, an invisible energy field present throughout the universe that imbues other particles with mass. Since its discovery two years ago, the particle has been making waves in the physics community.

Now that scientists measured the particle's mass last year, they can make many other calculations, including one that seems to spell out the end of the universe.

Universe doomsday

The Higgs boson is about 126 billion electron volts, or about the 126 times the mass of a proton. This turns out to be the precise mass needed to keep the universe on the brink of instability, but physicists say the delicate state will eventually collapse and the universe will become unstable. That conclusion involves the Higgs field.

The Higgs field emerged at the birth of the universe and has acted as its own source of energy since then, Lykken said. Physicists believe the Higgs field may be slowly changing as it tries to find an optimal balance of field strength and energy required to maintain that strength. 

"Just like matter can exist as liquid or solid, so the Higgs field, the substance that fills all space-time, could exist in two states," Gian Giudice, a theoretical physicist at the CERN lab, where the Higgs boson was discovered, explained during a TED talk in October 2013.

Right now the Higgs field is in a minimum potential energy state — like a valley in a field of hills and valleys. The huge amount of energy required to change into another state is like chugging up a hill. If the Higgs field makes it over that energy hill, some physicists think the destruction of the universe is waiting on the other side.

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Ghostly Neutrinos Created in the Heart of the Sun Are Finally Detected

This is the most direct evidence supporting researchers’ ideas about how the Sun is powered

In a lab buried under the Italy’s Gran Sasso mountain, physicists have observed elusive particles that confirm how the Sun shines. The particles are low-energy neutrinos, which are born of nuclear reactions in the center of stars. Those reactions are responsible for 99 percent of our Sun’s energy.

Neutrinos are tricky to detect because although about 100 trillion of them stream through our bodies every second at nearly the speed of light, they typically slip through the spaces in ordinary matter without a trace. Also, they are have no electric charge. These qualities have earned them the nickname "ghost particles." 

Researcher have managed to detect some flavors of neutrinos—ones produced by fusion between two helium atoms—but they haven’t seen the neutrinos produced by the first step of solar nuclear reactions. In that step, one proton (the positively charged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom) fuses with another. Neutrinos are a byproduct of that fusion. 

An international team of researchers finally detected those proton-proton neutrinos using the Borexino detector housed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso near L’Aquila, Italy. They published their findings Thursday in the journal Nature

Neutrinos created by the reactions in the heart of the Sun are extremely low energy, so their signature can be masked by cosmic rays and even the low levels of radioactivity in Earth’s soils. Borexino is nearly a mile (1.4 kilometers) under rock in an attempt to shield the detector from anything other than neutrinos. 

The finding is the most direct evidence supporting researchers’ ideas about how the Sun is powered. The next step is to look even closer at these ghostly particles for any unexpected qualities that may reveal new physics.

That will require further purifying the liquid at the core of the Borexino detector. That liquid, "already is by far the cleanest mass of liquid that we know of," says Andrea Pocar, a physicist at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and one of the researchers involved in the new work, in an article from The Christian Science Monitor. "It's a really challenging task."

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Are We Closing In On Dark Matter?



kavlifoundation.org

As the search for dark matter intensifies, the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago and the National Academy of Sciences organized a colloquium that brings together cosmologists, particle physicists and observational astrophysicists – three fields now united in the hunt to determine what is dark matter.

DARK MATTER IS ONE OF THE BIGGEST MYSTERIES IN MODERN PHYSICS. We believe it makes up about 23 percent of the mass-energy content of the universe, even though we don’t know what it is or have yet to directly see it (which is why it’s called “dark”). So how can we detect it and when we do, what will it reveal about the universe?
In mid-October, more than 100 cosmologists, particle physicists and astrophysicists gathered for a meeting called Dark Matter Universe: On the Threshold of Discovery at the National Academy of Sciences’ Beckman Center in Irvine, CA. Their goal: to take stock of the latest theories and findings about dark matter, assess just how close we are to detecting it and spark cross-disciplinary discussions and collaborations aimed at resolving the dark matter puzzle. Following the meeting, The Kavli Foundation met with three leading participants and organizers of the meeting:
  • Michael S. Turner – Rauner Distinguished Service Professor and Director of the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago.
  • Edward “Rocky” Kolb – Professor in the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Chicago, where he is also a member of the Enrico Fermi Institute and the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics.
  • Maria Spiropulu – Professor of Physics at California Institute of Technology who also works on experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, and a former fellow at the Enrico Fermi Institute.

The following is an edited transcription of the discussion.


THE KAVLI FOUNDATION: This meeting brought together theoretical cosmologists, observational astrophysicists and experimental particle physicists. Why this mix of researchers and why now?
MICHAEL TURNER: Figuring out what is dark matter has become a problem that astrophysicists, cosmologists and particle physicists all want to solve, because dark matter is central to our understanding of the universe. We now have a compelling hypothesis, namely that dark matter is comprised of WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle), particles that don’t radiate light and interact rarely with ordinary matter. After decades of trying to figure out how to test the idea that dark matter is made up of WIMPs, we have three ways to test this hypothesis. Best of all, all three methods are closing in on being able to either confirm or falsify the WIMP. So the stars have truly aligned.
ROCKY KOLB: The title to this meeting is a great answer to your question. It's “On the Threshold of Discovery,” and it could happen within the next one or two years. It's so important to get the different communities here – experimentalists working at colliders, people analyzing gamma ray data from space, and those involved in direct detection.
Roger Blandford, KIPAC Director
Director of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC) at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, also helped organize the dark matter meeting in Southern California. Dr. Blandford spoke separately with The Kavli Foundation after the meeting.
TKF: So dark matter is a mystery that everyone wants to solve.

Director of the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics (KICP) at the University of Chicago, and a theoretical cosmologist trained in both particle physics and astrophysics. Dr. Turner coined the term “dark energy” and helped establish the interdisciplinary field that combines cosmology and elementary particle physics. His research focuses on the earliest moments of creation, and he has made important contributions to inflationary cosmology, particle dark matter and structure formation, the theory of big bang nucleosynthesis, and the nature of dark energy.A theoretical cosmologist trained in both particle physics and astrophysics, Michael Turner coined the term “dark energy” and helped establish the interdisciplinary field that combines cosmology and elementary particle physics. 

TURNER: Ten years ago, I don't think you would've found astronomers, cosmologists, and particle physicists all agreeing that dark matter was really important. And now, they do. And all of them believe we can solve the problem soon. It's wonderful listening to particle physicists explain the evidence for dark matter, and vice versa –astronomers explaining WIMPs as dark matter. At this meeting nobody said, “Oh, I don't really believe in the evidence. Nor did anyone say, “Yikes – a new form of matter. That’s crazy.”
MARIA SPIROPULU: One important thing we’ve seen at this meeting is a crossing of professional boundaries that have separated researchers in many different fields in the past. These boundaries have been strict. Cosmologists, astrophysicists and particle physicists, however, have now really started talking to one another about dark matter. We’re only beginning and our language – the way speak to each other – is not yet settled so that we completely understand each other; but we are on the threshold of discovering something very important for all of us. This is critical because cosmologists and particle physicists have talked for a long time about how the very big and very small might be linked. And while the particle physicists study the very small with colliders, cosmologists study the galaxies and billions and billions of stars that make up the large-scale structure we see in the universe.
KOLB: Ten years ago, it was “Call me maybe” and now it's …
TURNER: “Let's do lunch.”
SPIROPULU: Yes, it's, “Let's do lunch and talk physics.”
TURNER: I do want to make one point: the convergence of inner space and outer space really started in the 1980s. Back then it began with the origin of the baryon asymmetry, the monopole problem and dark matter to a lesser extent. Particle physicists agreed that dark matter was a real problem but said, “The solution could be astrophysics – faint stars, ‘Jupiters’, black holes and the like.” It’s been a long road to get to where we are now, namely where we all agree that the most compelling solution is particle dark matter. And even today, the different fields are still, in a sense, getting to know one another.
TKF: Let’s cover a few basics. Why is the question of dark matter important?
A professor of Astronomy & Astrophysics at the University Of Chicago,  “Rocky” Kolb is a member of the Enrico Fermi Institute and the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, studies the application of elementary-particle physics to the very early Universe. He is the co-author with Michael Turner of The Early Universe, the standard textbook on particle physics and cosmology.“Rocky” Kolb studies the application of elementary-particle physics to the very early Universe, and  is the co-author with Michael Turner of The Early Universe, the standard textbook on particle physics and cosmology.

KOLB: As cosmologists, one of our jobs is to understand what the universe is made of. To a good approximation, the galaxies and other structures we see in the universe are made predominantly of dark matter. We have concluded this from a tremendous body of evidence, and now we need to discover what exactly is dark matter. The excitement now is that we are closing in on an answer, and only once in the history of humans will someone discover it. There will be some student or postdoc or experimentalist someplace who is going to look in the next 10 years at their data, and of the seven or so billion people in the world that person will discover what galaxies are mostly made of. It's only going to happen once.
TURNER: The dark matter story started with fragmentary evidence discovered by Fritz Zwicky, a Swiss American. He found that there were not enough stars in the galaxy clusters he observed to hold them together. Slowly, more was understood and finally dark matter became a centerpiece of cosmology. And now, we have established that dark matter is about 23 percent of the universe; ordinary matter is only 4½ percent; and dark energy is that other 73 percent – which is an even bigger puzzle.
Nothing in cosmology makes sense without dark matter. We needed it to form galaxies, stars and other structures in the Universe. And so it's absolutely central to cosmology. We also know that none of the particles known to exist can be the dark matter particle. So it has to be a new particle of nature. Remarkably, our most conservative hypothesis right now is that the dark matter is a new form of matter – out there to be discovered and to teach us about particle physics.
A Professor of Physics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, CA. An experimental particle physicist, Spiropulu is interested in the search for dark matter at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (The European Organization for Nuclear Research), and questions about dark matter that cut across particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Spiropulu was previously a senior physics researcher in the Physics Department at CERN from 2004-2012. She was also an Enrico Fermi Fellow from 2001-2004.An experimental particle physicist, Maria Spiropulu is interested in the search for dark matter at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (The European Organization for Nuclear Research), and questions about dark matter that cut across particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. 

SPIROPULU: I just want to say one thing. The phenomenon of dark matter was discovered from astronomical observations. We know that galaxies hang together and they don't fly apart, and it’s the same with clusters of galaxies. So we know that we have structure in the universe. Whatever it is that keeps it there, in whatever form it is, we call that dark matter. This is the way I teach it to undergraduates. It’s a fantastical story. It's still a mystery and so it’s “dark,” but the universe and its structures – galaxies and everything else we observe in the macroscopic world – are being held together because of it.
TKF: Dark matter is often described in the media as something that is inferred because of its gravitational effects on ordinary matter. But the case for dark matter is much more expansive than that, as astrophysicist Jeremiah [Jerry] Ostriker from Princeton University said at this meeting.
TURNER: Absolutely. Dark matter is absolutely central to cosmology and the evidence for it comes from many different measurements: the amount of deuterium produced in the big bang, the cosmic microwave background, the formation of structure in the Universe, galaxy rotation curves, gravitational lensing, and on and on. Jerry said that as far as he is concerned, the dark matter problem has been solved. And that’s because this idea that dark matter is just a swarm of particles that are very shy, that rarely interact with ordinary matter and then only weakly, works perfectly. And at the end of his talk, he said, as a kind of footnote: “By the way, I would be interested in knowing what the dark matter is.” This is a testimony to how central dark matter is to cosmology and culturally to how particle physicists and astrophysicists look at dark matter differently. Dr. Gross, the particle physicist, wanted to know what dark matter is made of.
In this image, dark matter and normal matter have been wrenched apart by the tremendous collision of two large clusters of galaxies. (Credit:Chandra/NASA)
What is dark matter? We don’t know, but cosmologists, astrophysicists and experimental particle physicists say they are closing in on an answer. Read a short explanation of what scientists consider the leading candidate, as well as the methods being used to detect dark matter. (Image, dark matter and normal matter have been wrenched apart by the tremendous collision of two large clusters of galaxies. Credit:Chandra/NASA)
TKF: So for Dr. Ostriker, knowing exactly what dark matter is is less important than the work done already – measuring its gravitational influence on ordinary matter, estimating how much of the universe is made from it, and affirming that what we do know about it fits with the standard model of cosmology.
TURNER: That was Jerry’s point, yes. There is five times more dark matter than ordinary matter, and its existence allows us to understand the history of the universe beginning from a formless particle soup until where we are today. If you said, “You no longer have dark matter,” our current cosmological model would collapse. We would be back to square one.
TKF: Dr. Ostriker also argued that we should be open to dark matter being a variety of fundamental particles and not only WIMPs. Other possibilities could be neutrinos and axions.

This composite image shows the galaxy cluster 1E 0657-56, also known as the "bullet cluster", formed after the collision of two large clusters of galaxies -- the most energetic event known in the universe since the Big Bang. The blue clumps show where most of the mass in the clusters is found, using a technique known as gravitational lensing. Most of the matter in the clusters (blue) is clearly separate from the normal matter (pink), giving direct evidence that nearly all of the matter in the clusters is dark. This result cannot be explained by modifying the laws of gravity. (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.; Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.)This composite image shows the galaxy cluster 1E 0657-56, also known as the "bullet cluster", formed after the collision of two large clusters of galaxies -- the most energetic event known in the universe since the Big Bang. The blue clumps show where most of the mass in the clusters is found, using a technique known as gravitational lensing. Most of the matter in the clusters (blue) is clearly separate from the normal matter (pink), giving direct evidence that nearly all of the matter in the clusters is dark. This result cannot be explained by modifying the laws of gravity. (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.; Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.)

TURNER: Because he doesn't care what it is. They all work equally well. The flip side is that cosmology tells us little about dark matter except it is cold.
TKF: Do they all work equally well for each of you?
KOLB: Well, for cold dark matter – which is made from particles that move slowly compared with the speed of light, and is the kind needed for forming galaxies and galaxy clusters – they all work equally well. The thing about the WIMP, as opposed to some of these other candidate particles, is that it's a very compelling possibility we can test right now. So we don't have to wait for the next 30 years or the next century, as we might if we were trying to detect another type of hypothesized particle. We don't have to build an accelerator larger than LHC.
It's a magical moment when astronomers, astrophysicists, string theorists, particle experimentalists and cosmologists get together because they all have a common purpose. There is a common problem that excites them.
TKF: What makes you most optimistic that we’re on the threshold of discovery?
KOLB: First of all, the hypothesis that dark matter is made up of WIMPs – and that it was produced by normal particles, say quarks, in the early universe – is an amazing achievement all by itself. Independent of a lot of the details of what goes on there and exactly how that happens, we expect that you should be able to reverse things and produce WIMPs in particle accelerators. We also expect they should be annihilating today in the galaxy, which we should be able to detect indirectly. Now, it's another issue who will be the first to find WIMPs. It's possible that it will be another 30 years before we do that, but we should be able to make a detection – whether it’s direct or indirect.
SPIROPULU: With the Large Hadron Collider, and before that the Tevatron collider, we have been chasing and targeting the dark matter candidate. For us, the optimism is because the LHC is working and we’re collecting a lot of data. In the standard model of particle physics, when we enlarge it to help explain how the universe began and evolved, we have a story that is a mathematical story. It’s very good at describing how we can have dark matter. And if the mathematics accurately describes reality, then the LHC is now achieving the energies that are needed to produce dark matter particles.
Getting to these high energies is critical, and we are even going to higher energies. When we were building the standard model of particle physics, we kept saying that the next particle discovery that we predicted was “right around the corner.” In other words, we were not, and we are not, flying in the dark. We are guided by a huge amount of data and knowledge, and while you might think there are infinite possibilities of what can happen, the data actually points you to something that is more probable. For example, we have found the Higgs-like particle, but that was predicted. So the next big step for this edifice of knowledge is to find something that will look like supersymmetry – a hypothesis that, if true, offers a perfect candidate for dark matter. We call it a miracle, because the mathematics works. But the way nature works, in the end, is what you see in the data. So if we find it, there is no miracle.
"Cosmologists, astrophysicists and particle physicists have now really started talking to one another about dark matter. We’re only beginning and our language – the way speak to each other – is not yet settled... but we are on the threshold of discovering something very important for all of us. – Maria Spiropulu
TURNER: These dark matter particles, or WIMPs, don’t interact with ordinary matter often. It's taken 25 years to improve the sensitivity of our detectors by a factor of a million, and now they have a good shot at detecting the dark matter particles. Because of the technological developments, we think we are on the cusp of a direct detection.
Likewise for indirect detection. We now have instruments like the Fermi satellite (the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope) and the IceCube detector (the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole) that can detect the ordinary particles (positrons, gamma rays or neutrinos) that are produced when dark matter particles annihilate, indirectly allowing dark matter to be detected. IceCube is big enough to detect neutrinos that are produced by dark matter annihilations in the sun.
TKF: A few people over the past two days have said the dark matter particle might not be detectable.
TURNER: For many of us, for 20 to 30 years, this idea that dark matter is part of a unified theory has been our Holy Grail and has led to the WIMP hypothesis and the belief that the dark matter particle is detectable. But there’s a new generation of physicists that is saying, “Well, there's an alternative view. Dark matter is actually just the tip of an iceberg of another world that is unrelated to our world. And I cannot even tell you about that world. There are no rules for that other world, at least that we know of yet.” Sadly, this point of view could be correct and might mean the solution to the dark matter problem is still very far away. That is what led Jerry to say that discovering what dark matter actually is could be 100 years away.
Hubble’s view of massive galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745.  Studying the distorting effects of gravity on light from background galaxies, astronomers uncovered the presence of a filament of dark matter extending from the core of the cluster.  The location of the dark matter is revealed in a map of the mass in the cluster and surrounding region, shown here in blue. Click to see video. (Credit: NASA, ESA, Harald Ebeling (University of Hawaii at Manoa) & Jean-Paul Kneib (LAM))Hubble’s view of massive galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. Studying the distorting effects of gravity on light from background galaxies, astronomers uncovered the presence of a filament of dark matter extending from the core of the cluster. The location of the dark matter is revealed in a map of the mass in the cluster and surrounding region, shown here in blue. (Credit: NASA, ESA, Harald Ebeling (University of Hawaii at Manoa) & Jean-Paul Kneib (LAM))

TKF: Michael Witherell, Professor of Physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara, also said that nature doesn't guarantee an observation.
TURNER: Also true. But we have the WIMP hypothesis and it is falsifiable. And there's a good chance it's true. A “good chance” in this business means 10 percent or 20 percent. But when you’re trying to solve a problem of this magnitude, if you have a 10-20 percent chance, I say let's double down on that.
TKF: When do you predict we’ll detect WIMPs?
KOLB: It's easy to say, “A decade.” LHC is turning on now. It'll be another year or so before they are at full energy, and they may run a couple of years to accumulate data. Meanwhile, the Fermi satellite is in space making observations. And then we have experiments underground: a detection may come with Xenon100, one dark matter experiment now underway in central Italy, or some successor to Xenon100.
TKF: And programs like LUX, the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment in South Dakota, are just coming online.
KOLB: In ten years, if there is no indication of supersymmetry or a WIMP – either from direct detection or indirect detection searches – then there is going to be a sea change. Now, there is not going to be one experiment announcement that says, “OK, let's look at something else.” But if ten years from now there is no evidence, then we are going to other possibilities. You could not have said that ten years ago, or even five years ago. Today, I think you can say that.
TKF: Because we have so much work behind us and have already eliminated numerous possibilities.
KOLB: As in Ghostbusters, we have the tools. We have the talent.
SPIROPULU: I think it's fair to say the discovery is “around the corner.” If we continue with exclusions, then we have to come up with better ideas. We are doing all this because we want to characterize dark matter. We are not just saying, “It is dark matter.” We don't want to just say, “The universe is.” We want to know exactly what it is made of. We want to know the dynamics and what it involves. A lot of work is ahead of us. Somebody said that it's not going to be as easy as finding the Higgs. Well, finding the Higgs was extremely nontrivial. Of course, once we find it, it goes in the pool of knowledge and then you say, “Well, it was easy.”
"[W]e need to discover what exactly is dark matter. The excitement now is that we are closing in on an answer, and only once in the history of humans will someone discover it." – Rocky Kolb
TKF: Painting a picture for the general public about how incredible it would be to discover a WIMP is challenging. How do you convey just how sensitive this measurement would be?
TURNER: I keep saying these particles are very shy. Here’s one way to think about this: if you had 100 kilograms of material, one of these shy particles – one of these WIMPS – would interact with that 100 kg once in a year or even less often. So you really have to build very sensitive detectors. Because of the cosmic rays and other particles that light up your detector and obscure the WIMP signal you’re looking for, you have to put WIMP detectors underground. And even underground you still get natural radioactivity clouding your signal, so you have to discriminate against that as well.
Now, we also expect there’s a seasonal modulation in the dark matter signal as the Earth orbits the sun through the sea of dark matter particles that permeate space. The modulation signal is expected to be only a few percent of the rare, dark-matter signal I talked about a minute ago. We do have the equipment in place to make these detections, but we just need Nature to cooperate.
KOLB: It's a fantastical story. One hundred years ago, if I told you that we are surrounded by these invisible particles and they’re passing through us – you don't feel them yet they form the entire structure of the universe – you would have locked me up.
TKF: Do any of you expect that learning about dark matter will help us also learn about the other big mystery in cosmology – dark energy?
KOLB: Possibly nothing. It depends on what the answer will be. It is possible it won't shed any light on the nature of dark energy.
TURNER: There are two views. One is a conservative view, which is that dark matter is just made up of particles that don't give off light. It's just particles that happened to be more important than the stuff that we are made out of, which we only discovered in the past 70 years. And dark energy is a new problem that is unrelated.
TKF: And the only thing they share at this point is being unknown?
This is one of the most detailed maps of dark matter in our universe ever created. The location of the dark matter (tinted blue) was inferred through observations of magnified and distorted distant galaxies seen in this picture. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESA/Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, University of Basque Country/JHU)This is one of the most detailed maps of dark matter in our universe ever created. The location of the dark matter (tinted blue) was inferred through observations of magnified and distorted distant galaxies seen in this picture. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESA/Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, University of Basque Country/JHU)


TURNER: That's right. The conservative point of view is that dark energy is unrelated to dark matter. Recall, dark energy is the stuff that is causing the universe to speed up. This is the simple view where we are solving problems one at a time.
A more radical view which we heard about at this meeting from Erik Verlinde (from the University of Amsterdam) is, “You know, guess what? Don't you guys get it? The two of them are related. It has nothing to do with particles. It's something much, much bigger. The two are related and are pointing to a much richer explanation. You are trying to explain things in a simple-minded way: dark matter particles and dark energy. Just like Ptolemy’s epicycles (the epicycles of Claudius Ptolemy, a Greek astronomer who lived in Alexandria, Egypt under Roman rule, is a false construction of an Earth-centered universe, specifically describing the observed retrograde motion of planets), a desperate attempt to make a wrong hypothesis work.
And so those are the two extremes. One is that we are just about to solve dark matter and then we will go on to dark energy and they're probably not related; the other is that together, they make this big flashing sign: You guys really need to sit down and reconsider the whole framework.
SPIROPULU: I think it's worth noting that the dark sector (i.e. dark matter and dark energy) has to do with gravity. They are linked via gravity. Gravity is a force that in particle physics we have not been able to put together with the rest of the forces. Somehow, if you could stand outside the universe – that's an absurd statement, of course – but stand outside it and see how everything relates, you could say something about the dark sector and gravity.
TURNER: You're right that gravity could be the connector, because in cosmology and astrophysics gravity is the most important force. In particle physics, it's the least important force. Consequently particle physicists are just getting around to worrying about it, and in cosmology we mostly worry about gravity. And so now, we have come together because of a common interest in gravity – gravity revealed to us through dark matter and dark energy.
SPIROPULU: Here we are, with dark matter between us. It's a beautiful story of how we are trying to solve the problems, the challenges of characterizing our physical world.
KOLB: Dark matter holds together the galaxies. It holds together cosmologists and particle physicists.
TURNER: We know that Einstein didn't get the last word on gravity, because his theory doesn't have quantum mechanics in it. And so any problem that involves gravity, you are thinking, nervously and excitedly, that this could be the clue to the grander theory of gravity.
KOLB: I don't think the general public appreciates that we would love to find something wrong with what we think about the universe, about the laws of nature. And that’s because it points the way toward new discoveries. I don't think most people work that way, thinking that, “Boy, I would love to be shown that I’m wrong about something that I really thought was true for 30 years or 100 years.”
"[T]he universe is vast....but we are at a point in time where we really think we understand it and that we can identify what dark matter is. ...This is the time to be a dark cosmologist." – Michael Turner
TURNER: We want new puzzles.
SPIROPULU: Always. And I have to say that in particle physics, there is a list of experiments and projects that have been built in the past 30 years that did not find what they were built for. None. They found other things, other important things. It's incredible. One example of this is the Hubble Space Telescope, which has revealed more about the universe than we ever could have imagined when it was conceived. The series of deep field images of the very distant universe, which has given us glimpses of the earliest galaxies, is just one example of this. So, when you write a proposal for something and you say what you are building it for, and you get the money and you go and build it and you find something completely unexpected – Wow. Our physical world is surprising. And it's very surprising that we can get it, even at the level we do. Or that we can do the experiments that we do.
TURNER: I think the universe is vast. It's often beyond the reach of our instruments and our minds, but we are at a point in time here where we really think we understand it and that we can identify what dark matter is. We have an accounting of the universe and a compelling hypothesis for dark matter. It is not unexpected that the younger generation of scientists wants a more radical solution to dark matter. The older generation developed the WIMP hypothesis, and this is our solution and we want to see it come true. The younger generation wants the excitement of solving a problem.
TKF: Would any of you trade this point in time with another in the history of physics?
KOLB: No, no. For dark matter, I think this is the time. I can't see everything converging at another time like it is now.
TURNER: This is the time to be a dark cosmologist.

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Fall of the Chimera


Time has come to release more intel about the Chimera group. Parts of this intel may seem unbelievable for some people, but truth is stranger than fiction. 

This group includes the leaders of the dark forces from the Andromeda galaxy. They came to Earth in humanoid physical bodies 25,000 years ago and quarantined the planet. They have built a scalar electromagnetic fence around the Earth (the Veil), effectively preventing positive ET contact and thus isolating humanity. Then they constructed a vast network of subterranean cities, using Draconians as slave handlers and Reptilians as slaves and controlled the human population on the surface of the planet from there. 



Their main strongholds at that time were under Africa, China and Tibet. They had no direct contact with the surface civilization until the early 20th century. That timeframe has seen interesting occult developments.
First, in 1917 the Light forces have formed the Thule society in Germany. Very soon it was infiltrated by the Archon-controlled Rothschild agent named Adolf Schicklgruber (Hitler) and became an instrument of the dark and it further morphed into the Vril society which was developing secret German space program:
When the Chimera group saw this, they realized that the surface human population has reached sufficient technological development to reach for the stars and pierce the Veil. To suppress that, they have made their first contact with the surface population through Karl Haushofer on his travels to Tibet. After that contact was made, Chimera-controlled Haushofer was the main occult force behind the Nazi Germany:
After the Nazis have lost WW2, they have been imported into the United States through Operation Paperclip, where they formed the backbone of the military-industrial complex, continued to develop their secret space program and started to build deep underground military bases, financed with Yamashita gold. The Chimera group was behind the scenes, carefully watching the moves of the US military-industrial complex and making sure that the quarantine status of the planet was maintained and kept intact. The growing nuclear arsenal of the Negative Military was a great concern for the Galactic Confederation forces and they made an experiment to minimize the yield of the thermonuclear bomb at the Castle Koon nuclear test in 1954:
After the Confederation has successfully decreased the yield of the bomb by almost 90%, the military-industrial complex became afraid and united their forces against the perceived threat from the »tall whites« . This was exactly as Chimera wanted, because now they had Negative Military united worldwide, working on the common goal of maintaining the quarantine. Very strict secrecy protocols were established and no leaks about »deep events« which could disrupt the quarantine status were tolerated. This is the reason why you can find no real proof about the existence of ET civilizations anywhere and most »evidence« is fabricated by CIA to further confuse the issue. This is also the reason why you can not find any deep intel on internet but just endless recycling of well-known facts instead. You might already have noticed that almost all intel about UFOs and deep underground military bases is decades old. 
You can find the only mention of the Chimera group in a James Casbolt's interview. He is one of the very few people with access to deep intel who went public. Although not everything in here is correct, it is worth reading:
The Chimera group worships the Black Sun, which is their symbol for the Galactic Central Sun. Their leader is still in a possession of a single piece of the Black Stone, which is a lump of heavy top/antitop quark condensate. It was brought to Earth from Rigel in 1996. The Black Stone is the center of the primary cosmic anomaly of darkness and is far more dangerous than the strangelet bomb, as top quarks are much heavier than strange quarks:
Leaders of the Chimera group are the guardians of the electromagnetic null zone.
The Chimera group had their own network of underground bases until they were recently cleared out by the Resistance. These bases were connected with a high speed train system. To clarify the situation, until recently there were three underground train systems: the one connecting deep underground military bases of the Negative Military, the one connecting the Chimera bases and the one connecting the Resistance bases. The Resistance train system was the one I have seen back in 1977. The existence of the underground train system of the Negative Military has been leaked to the surface population through this RAND document:
Now only the underground train system of the Resistance is fully operational. The Chimera group is mostly contained in the uppermost underground sections of the surface military bases, closer than 100 feet (30 meters) to the surface. Their main current strongholds, through which they control the surface of the planet, are:
*Borgo Santo Spirito, Rome, Italy
*Aviano NATO base, Italy
*A certain classified location, Central Europe
*Another classified location, Central Europe
*Ramstein NATO base, Germany
*Fairford RAF base, UK
*Montauk, NY
*Wright-Patterson AFB, OH
*Sandia / Los Alamos, NM
*White Sands / Area 6413, UT
*Nellis AFB / Area 51, NV
*Edwards AFB, CA
Each of those locations has their own strangelet bomb on its territory. Those strangelet bombs are quite dangerous and they are the main reason why the Positive Military is not yet making their move for the Event:
A location near Montauk entry/exit point is Cold Spring Harbor, a genetics laboratory where the Chimera produces top Cabal members clones, according to some unconfirmed sources:
Galactic Confederation forces are constantly monitoring the facility and will terminate the cloning program when the situation will be ready for that:
The Chimera group has hijacked the global financial system from the hands of the central bankers in the last decade through the PROMIS software and through high speed trading programs. The Resistance and the Organization (its forerunner) were aware of those programs for quite some time and were able to siphon off about 70 trillion dollars away from the black funds of the Cabal. That money will be given back to humanity after the Reset through the collateral accounts.



The Chimera group must not be confused with the breakaway civilization. The breakaway civilization originated in Nazi occult space program and evolved into a military-industrial complex with many black projects, whereas the Chimera group is the driving force behind the breakaway civilization, manipulating it to help maintaining the quarantine status of planet Earth. The demarcation line between the Chimera group and the breakaway civilization is called the phase boundary, of which nothing more can be said publicly, and the Event / the Compression Breakthrough can also be called the phase transition.
The Light forces have developed a protocol for the defeat of the Chimera group and the protocol is being carried out.
The Victory of the Light is near. 

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