Excerpt from huffingtonpost.com
As a society, we don’t talk much about emotions. Conversations tend to focus more on what we’re doing or what we’re thinking. In fact, most people find it easier to start sentences with, “I think…” instead of “I feel…” simply because it feels less awkward.
Most of us are never educated about feelings. Instead, we’re expected to learn socially acceptable ways to deal with feelings by watching the people around us. But the truth is, many people don’t role model healthy ways to deal with feelings.
Social norms differ over what is considered acceptable in terms of talking about feelings and dealing with them. There are many cultural differences about how to identify and manage emotions as well. In fact, most languages have words for certain emotions that don’t have equivalent translations — Popular Science recently shared 21 emotions for which there are no English equivalents.
It’s no wonder there is a lot of confusion about emotions. Here are some of the most common misconceptions about emotions:
1. I should feel differently. So often people will say things like, “I know I shouldn’t be so upset over something so little,” or, “I really should be happier than I am.” There aren’t any rules that dictate that your emotional reaction is wrong, however. Rather than waste energy beating yourself up over how you feel, accept that you feel that particular emotion right now and recognize that you have choices in how you react to that emotion.
2. I can’t control how I feel. Even though your emotions aren’t wrong, that doesn’t mean you have to stay stuck in a particular mood. You can certainly choose to make changes that will influence the way you feel. If you want to change the way you feel, change the way you think and behave .
3. Venting will make me feel better. A widely held misconception is that if you’re not talking to everyone about your feelings, you must be “suppressing your emotions” or “stuffing your feelings.” But research shows that the opposite is true — at least when it comes to anger. Punching a pillow or calling everyone you know to tell them how bad your day was will only increase your arousal and won’t make you feel better.
4. Trying to control my emotions is synonymous with behaving like a robot. Sometimes people think that regulating their emotions means trying to act as if they don’t have feelings. But, that’s not the case. A realistic view of emotions shows that we’re capable of experiencing a wide range of emotions, but we don’t have to be controlled by those emotions. After a hard day, choosing to do something to help you feel better — as opposed to staying in a bad mood – is a healthy skill.
5. Other people have the power to make me feel certain emotions. So often, people will say things like, “My boss makes me so mad,” or, “My mother-in-law makes me feel bad about myself.” But in reality, no one can make you feel anything. Other people may influence how you feel, but you are the only one in charge of your emotions.
6. I can’t handle uncomfortable emotions. When people doubt their ability to tolerate certain emotions, it leads to avoidance. Someone who experiences frequent bouts of anxiety may pass up opportunities to be promoted. A person who feels uncomfortable with confrontation may avoid meeting with a co-worker to problem-solve a situation. Learning to deal with uncomfortable emotions directly builds confidence. When you don’t allow your emotions to rule your behavior, you’ll learn you can handle a lot more than you imagined.
7. Negative emotions are bad. It’s easy to categorize emotions as being good or bad, but feelings in themselves aren’t positive or negative. It’s what we choose to do with those emotions that can make the difference. Anger, for example, often gets a bad rap. While some people make horrible choices when they’re mad, other people choose to use anger in a proactive manner. Many of the world’s positive changes wouldn’t have ever occurred if activists hadn’t gotten angry about injustices they witnessed.
8. Showing emotion is a sign of weakness. While it’s a healthy social skill to be able to behave professionally even when you’re not feeling at the top of your game, letting your guard down at socially appropriate times isn’t a sign of weakness. In fact, being aware of your emotions and making a conscious decision to share those emotions with others — when it’s socially appropriate to do so — can be a sign of strength.
Developing an awareness and understanding of your emotions can be difficult when you’re not used to thinking about how you feel. Just like most skills in life, with practice you’re ability to recognize, tolerate and regulate your emotions will improve. Increased emotional self-awareness is key to building mental strength and achieving success in your personal and professional life.
Amy Morin is a psychotherapist and the author of 13 Things Mentally Strong People Don’t Do.
Excerpt from huffingtonpost.com
In the hunt for alien life, our first glimpse of extraterrestrials may be in the rainbow of colors seen coming from the surface of an exoplanet.
That’s the deceptively simple idea behind a study led by Siddharth Hegde at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Germany. Seen from light-years away, plants on Earth give our planet a distinctive hue in the near-infrared, a phenomenon called red edge. That’s because the chlorophyll in plants absorbs most visible light waves but starts to become transparent to wavelengths on the redder end of the spectrum. An extraterrestrial looking at Earth through a telescope could match this reflected color with the presence of oxygen in our atmosphere and conclude there is life here.
|Eight of the 137 microorganism samples used to measure biosignatures for the catalog of reflection signatures of Earth life forms. In each panel, the top is a regular photograph of the sample and the bottom is a micrograph, a version of the top image zoomed-in 400 times.|
Plants, though, have only been around for 500 million years—a relative blip in our planet’s 4.6-billion-year history. Microbes dominated the scene for some 2.5 billion years in the past, and some studies suggest they will rule the Earth again for much of its future. So Hegde and his team gathered 137 species of microorganisms that all have different pigments and that reflect light in specific ways. By building up a library of the microbes’ reflectance spectra—the types of colors those microscopic critters reflect from a distance—scientists examining the light from habitable exoplanets can have a plethora of possible signals to search for, the team argues this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
“No one had looked at the wide range of diverse life on Earth and asked how we could potentially spot such life on other planets, and include life from extreme environments on Earth that could be the ‘norm’ on other planets,” Lisa Kaltenegger, a co-author on the study, says via email. “You can use it to model an Earth that is different and has different widespread biota and look how it would appear to our telescopes.”
To make sure they got enough diversity, the researchers looked at temperate-dwelling microbes as well as creatures that live in extreme environments like deserts, mineral springs, hydrothermal vents or volcanically active areas.
While it might seem that alien life could take a huge variety of forms—for instance, something like the silicon-based Horta from Star Trek—it’s possible to narrow things down if we restrict the search to life as we know it. First, any life-form that is carbon-based and uses water as a solvent isn’t going to like the short wavelengths of light far in the ultraviolet, because this high-energy UV can damage organic molecules. At the other end of the spectrum, any molecule that alien plants (or their analogues) use to photosynthesize won’t be picking up light that’s too far into the infrared, because there’s not enough energy at those longer wavelengths.
In addition, far-infrared light is hard to see through an Earth-like atmosphere because the gases block a lot of these waves, and whatever heat the planet emits will drown out any signal from surface life. That means the researchers restricted their library to the reflected colors we can see when looking at wavelengths in the visible part of the spectrum, the longest wavelength UV and short-wave infrared.
The library won’t be much use if we can’t see the planets’ surfaces in the first place, and that’s where the next generation of telescopes comes in, Kaltenegger says. The James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled for launch in 2018, should be able to see the spectra of relatively small exoplanet atmospheres and help scientists work out their chemical compositions, but it won’t be able to see any reflected spectra from material at the surface. Luckily, there are other planned telescopes that should be able to do the job. The European Extremely Large Telescope, a 40-meter instrument in Chile, will be complete by 2022. And NASA’s Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope, which is funded and in its design stages, should be up and running by the mid-2020s.
Another issue is whether natural geologic or chemical processes could look like life and create a false signal. So far the pigments from life-forms look a lot different from those reflected by minerals, but the team hasn’t examined all the possibilities either, says Kaltenegger. They hope to do more testing in the future as they build up the digital library, which is now online and free for anyone to explore at biosignatures.astro.cornell.edu.
|Hubble optical image (left) and VLT infrared image (right) of the circumstellar disk surrounding HD 100546. (ESO/NASA/ESA/Ardila et al.)|
Excerpt from news.discovery.com
Mommy, where do baby planets come from? There’s no storks, birds, bees, or romantic dinners for two involved in the answer to that question — regardless of size, planets are all formed in pretty much the same way: through the aggregation of material within the disk of dust and gas surrounding a young star. While how long it actually takes and just what sort of planets are most likely to form where are still topics of discussion among astronomers, the birth process of a planet is fairly well understood.
And this may be the very first image of it actually happening.
Acquired by the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), the infrared image above (right) shows a portion of the disk of gas and dust around the star HD100546, located 335 light-years away in the constellation Musca. By physically blocking out the light from the star itself by means of an opaque screen — seen along the left side of the image — the light from the protoplanetary disk around HD 100546 can be seen, revealing a large bright clump that’s thought to be a planet in the process of formation.
If it is indeed a baby planet, it’s a big one — as large as, or perhaps even larger than, Jupiter.
This does raise an interesting question for astronomers because if it is a Jupiter-sized planet, it’s awfully far from its star… at least according to many current models of planetary formation. About 68 times as far from HD100546 as we are from the sun, if this planet were in our solar system it’d be located deep in the Kuiper Belt, twice as far as Pluto. That’s not where one would typically expect to find gas giants, so it’s been hypothesized that this protoplanet might have migrated outwards after initially forming closer to the star… perhaps “kicked out” by gravitational interaction with an even more massive planet.
Alternatively, it may not be a planet at all — the bright blob in the VLT image might be coming from a much more distant source. While extremely unlikely, further research will be needed to rule that possibility out.
If it’s found to be a planet, HD100546 “b” would offer scientists an unprecedented opportunity to observe a planetary formation process in action — and from a relatively close proximity as well.
According to the team’s paper, submitted to Astrophysical Journal Letters, ”What makes HD100546 particularly interesting is that 1. it would be the first imaged protoplanet that is still embedded in the gas and dust disk of its host star; and 2. it would show that planet formation does occur at large orbital separations.”
(Now all we have to do is wait a couple billion years and then show these pictures to HD100546b’s girlfriend. How embarrassing!)
Excerpt from nbcnews.com
However, scientists also caution that aliens might have nothing to do with these findings.
All this excitement is rooted in analyses of chemical data returned by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft. One study suggested that hydrogen was flowing down through Titan’s atmosphere and disappearing at the surface. Astrobiologist Chris McKay at NASA’s Ames Research Center speculated that this could be a tantalizing hint that hydrogen is getting consumed by life.
“It’s the obvious gas for life to consume on Titan, similar to the way we consume oxygen on Earth,” McKay said.
Another study investigating hydrocarbons on Titan’s surface found a lack of acetylene, a compound that could be consumed as food by life that relies on liquid methane instead of liquid water to live.
“If these signs do turn out to be a sign of life, it would be doubly exciting because it would represent a second form of life independent from water-based life on Earth,” McKay said.
However, NASA scientists caution that aliens might not be involved at all.
“Scientific conservatism suggests that a biological explanation should be the last choice after all non-biological explanations are addressed,” said Mark Allen, principal investigator with the NASA Astrobiology Institute Titan team. “We have a lot of work to do to rule out possible non-biological explanations. It is more likely that a chemical process, without biology, can explain these results.”
McKay told Space.com that “both results are still preliminary.”
To date, methane-based life forms are only speculative, with McKay proposing a set of conditions necessary for these kinds of organisms on Titan in 2005. Scientists have not yet detected this form of life anywhere, although there are liquid-water-based microbes on Earth that thrive on methane or produce it as a waste product.
On Titan, where temperatures are around minus-290 degrees Fahrenheit (-179 degrees Celsius), any organisms would have to use a substance that is liquid as its medium for living processes. Water itself cannot do, because it is frozen solid on Titan’s surface. The list of liquid candidates is very short — liquid methane and related molecules such as ethane. Previous studies have found Titan to have lakes of liquid methane.
The dearth of hydrogen Cassini detected is consistent with conditions that could produce methane-based life, but do not conclusively prove its existence, cautioned researcher Darrell Strobel, a Cassini interdisciplinary scientist based at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. Strobel wrote the paper on hydrogen appearing online in the journal Icarus.
Strobel looked at densities of hydrogen in different parts of the atmosphere and at the surface. Previous models from scientists had predicted that hydrogen molecules, a byproduct of ultraviolet sunlight breaking apart acetylene and methane molecules in the upper atmosphere, should be distributed fairly evenly throughout the atmospheric layers.
Strobel’s computer simulations suggest a hydrogen flow down to the surface at a rate of about 10,000 trillion trillion molecules per second.
“It’s as if you have a hose and you’re squirting hydrogen onto the ground, but it’s disappearing,” Strobel said. “I didn’t expect this result, because molecular hydrogen is extremely chemically inert in the atmosphere, very light and buoyant. It should ‘float’ to the top of the atmosphere and escape.”
Strobel said it is not likely that hydrogen is being stored in a cave or underground space on Titan. An unknown mineral could be acting as a catalyst on Titan’s surface to help convert hydrogen molecules and acetylene back to methane.
Although Allen commended Strobel, he noted “a more sophisticated model might be needed to look into what the flow of hydrogen is.”
Scientists had expected the sun’s interactions with chemicals in the atmosphere to produce acetylene that falls down to coat Titan’s surface. But when Cassini mapped hydrocarbons on Titan’s surface, it detected no acetylene on the surface, according to findings appearing online in the Journal of Geophysical Research.
Instead of alien life on Titan, Allen said one possibility is that sunlight or cosmic rays are transforming the acetylene in icy aerosols in the atmosphere into more complex molecules that would fall to the ground with no acetylene signature.
In addition, Cassini detected an absence of water ice on Titan’s surface, but loads of benzene and another as-yet-unidentified material, which appears to be an organic compound. The researchers said that a film of organic compounds is covering the water ice that makes up Titan’s bedrock. This layer of hydrocarbons is at least a few millimeters to centimeters thick, but possibly much deeper in some places.
“Titan’s atmospheric chemistry is cranking out organic compounds that rain down on the surface so fast that even as streams of liquid methane and ethane at the surface wash the organics off, the ice gets quickly covered again,” said Roger Clark, a Cassini team scientist based at the U.S. Geological Survey in Denver. “All that implies Titan is a dynamic place where organic chemistry is happening now.”
All this speculation “is jumping the gun, in my opinion,” Allen said.
“Typically in the search for the existence of life, one looks for the presence of evidence — say, the methane seen in the atmosphere of Mars, which can’t be made by normal photochemical processes,” Allen added. “Here we’re talking about absence of evidence rather than presence of evidence — missing hydrogen and acetylene — and oftentimes there are many non-life processes that can explain why things are missing.”
These findings are “still a long way from evidence of life,” McKay said. “But it could be interesting.”
Excerpt from space.com
The moon has long been viewed as a crucial component in creating an environment suitable for the evolution of complex life on Earth, but a number of scientific results in recent years have shown that perhaps our planet doesn’t need the moon as much as we have thought.
In 1993, French astronomer Jacques Laskar ran a series of calculations indicating that the gravity of the moon is vital to stabilizing the tilt of our planet. Earth’s obliquity, as this tilt is technically known as, has huge repercussions for climate. Laskar argued that should Earth’s obliquity over hundreds of thousands of years, it would cause environmental chaos by creating a climate too variable for complex life to develop in relative peace.
So his argument goes, we should feel remarkably lucky to have such a large moon on our doorstep, as no other terrestrial planet in our solar system has such a moon. Mars’ two satellites, Phobos and Deimos, are tiny, captured asteroids that have little known effect on the Red Planet. Consequently, Mars’ tilt wobbles chaotically over timescales of millions of years, with evidence for swings in its rotational axis at least as large as 45 degrees.
The stroke of good fortune that led to Earth possessing an unlikely moon, specifically the collision 4.5 billion years ago between Earth and a Mars-sized proto-planet that produced the debris from which our Moon formed, has become one of the central tenets of the ‘Rare Earth’ hypothesis. Famously promoted by Peter Ward and Don Brownlee, it argues that planets where everything is just right for complex life are exceedingly rare.
New findings, however, are tearing up the old rule book. In 2011, a trio of scientists — Jack Lissauer of NASA Ames Research Center, Jason Barnes of the University of Idaho and John Chambers of the Carnegie Institution for Science — published results from new simulations describing what Earth’s obliquity would be like without the moon. What they found was surprising.
“We were looking into how obliquity might vary for all sorts of planetary systems,” says Lissauer. “To test our code we began with integrations following the obliquity of Mars and found similar results to other people. But when we did the obliquity of Earth we found the variations were much smaller than expected — nowhere near as extreme as previous calculations suggested they would be.”
Lissauer’s team found that without the moon, Earth’s rotational axis would only wobble by 10 degrees more than its present day angle of 23.5 degrees. The reason for such vastly different results to those attained by Jacques Laskar is pure computing power. Today’s are much faster and capable of more accurate modeling with far more data than computers of the 1990s.
Lissauer and his colleagues also found that if Earth were spinning fast, with one day lasting less than 10 hours, or rotating retrograde (i.e. backwards so that the sun rose in the West and set in the East), then Earth stabilized itself thanks to the gravitational resonances with other planets, most notably giant Jupiter. There would be no need for a large moon.
Earth’s rotation has not always been as as the current 24 hour spin-rate. Following the impact that formed the moon, Earth was spinning once every four or five hours, but it has since gradually slowed by the moon’s presence. As for the length of Earth’s day prior to the moon-forming impact, nobody really knows, but some models of the impact developed by Robin Canup of the Southwest Research Institute, in Boulder, Colorado, suggest that Earth could have been rotating fast, or even retrograde, prior to the collision.
“Collisions in the epoch during which Earth was formed determined its initial rotation,” says Lissauer. “For rocky planets, some of the models say most of them will be prograde, but others say comparable numbers of planets will be prograde and retrograde. Certainly, retrograde worlds are not expected to be rare.”
The upshot of Lissauer’s findings is that the presence of a moon is not the be all and end all as once thought, and a terrestrial planet can exist without a large moon and still retain its habitability. Indeed, it is possible to imagine some circumstances where having a large moon would actually be pretty bad for life.
Rory Barnes, of the University of Washington, has also tackled the problem of obliquity, but from a different perspective. Planets on the edge of habitable zones exist in a precarious position, far enough away from their star that, without a thick, insulating atmosphere, they freeze over, just like Mars. Barnes and his colleagues including John Armstrong of Weber State University, realized that torques from other nearby worlds could cause a planet’s inclination to the ecliptic to vary. This in turn would result in a change of obliquity; the greater the inclination, the greater the obliquity to the Sun. Barnes and Armstrong saw that this could be a good thing for planets on the edges of habitable zones, allowing heat to be distributed evenly over geological timescales and preventing “Snowball Earth” scenarios. They called these worlds “tilt-a-worlds,” but the presence of a large moon would counteract this beneficial obliquity change.
“I think one of the most important points from our tilt-a-world paper is that at the outer edge of the habitable zone, having a large moon is bad, there’s no other way to look at it,” says Barnes. “If you have a large moon that stabilizes the obliquity then you have a tendency to completely freeze over.”
Barnes is impressed with the work of Lissauer’s team.
“I think it is a well done study,” he says. “It suggests that Earth does not need the moon to have a relatively stable climate. I don’t think there would be any dire consequences to not having a moon.”
Of course, the moon does have a hand in other factors important to life besides planetary obliquity. Tidal pools may have been the point of origin of life on Earth. Although the moon produces the largest tides, the sun also influences tides, so the lack of a large moon is not necessarily a stumbling block. Some animals have also evolved a life cycle based on the cycle of the moon, but that’s more happenstance than an essential component for life.
“Those are just minor things,” says Lissauer.
Without the absolute need for a moon, astrobiologists seeking life and habitable worlds elsewhere face new opportunities. Maybe Earth, with its giant moon, is actually the oddball amongst habitable planets. Rory Barnes certainly doesn’t think we need it.
“It will be a step forward to see the myth that a habitable planet needs a large moon dispelled,” he says, to which Lissauer agrees.
Earth without its moon might therefore remain habitable, but we should still cherish its friendly presence. After all, would Beethoven have written the Moonlight Sonata without it?
Excerpt from theregister.co.uk
Boffins in Australia have applied a hundreds-of-years-old astronomical rule to data from the Kepler planet-hunting space telescope. They’ve come to the conclusion that the average star in our galaxy has not one but two Earth-size planets in its “goldilocks” zone where liquid water – and thus, life along Earthly lines – could exist.
“The ingredients for life are plentiful, and we now know that habitable environments are plentiful,” says Professor Charley Lineweaver, a down-under astrophysicist.
Lineweaver and PhD student Tim Bovaird worked this out by reviewing the data on exoplanets discovered by the famed Kepler planet-hunter space scope. Kepler naturally tends to find exoplanets which orbit close to their parent suns, as it detects them by the changes in light they make by passing in front of the star. As a result, most Kepler exoplanets are too hot for liquid water to be present on their surfaces, which makes them comparatively boring.
Good planets in the “goldilocks” zone which is neither too hot nor too cold are much harder to detect with Kepler, which is a shame as these are the planets which might be home to alien life – or alternatively, home one day to transplanted Earth life including human colonists, once we’ve cracked that pesky interstellar travel problem.
However there exists a thing called the Titius-Bode relation – aka Bode’s Law – which can be used, once you know where some inner planets are, to predict where ones further out will be found.
Assuming Bode’s Law works for other suns as it does here, and inputting the positions of known inner exoplanets found by Kepler, Lineweaver and Bovaird found that on average a star in our galaxy has two planets in its potentially-habitable zone.
That doesn’t mean there are habitable or inhabited planets at every star, of course. Even here in our solar system, apparently lifeless (and not very habitable) Mars is in the habitable zone.
Even so, there are an awful lot of planets in the galaxy, so some at least ought to have life on them, and in some cases this life ought to have achieved a detectable civilisation. Prof Lineweaver admits that the total lack of any sign of this is a bit of a puzzler.
“The universe is not teeming with aliens with human-like intelligence that can build radio telescopes and space ships,” admits the prof. “Otherwise we would have seen or heard from them.
“It could be that there is some other bottleneck for the emergence of life that we haven’t worked out yet. Or intelligent civilisations evolve, but then self-destruct.”
Of course, humans – some approximations of which have been around for some hundreds of thousands of years, perhaps – have only had civilisation of any kind in any location for a few thousand of those years. Our civilisation has only risen to levels where it could be detectable across interstellar distances very recently.
There may be many planets out there inhabited by intelligent aliens who either have no civilisation at all, or only primitive civilisation. There may be quite a few who have reached or passed the stage of emitting noticeable amounts of radio or other telltale signs, but those emissions either will not reach us for hundreds of thousands of years – or went past long ago.
It would seem reasonable to suspect that there are multitudes of worlds out there where life exists in plenty but has never become intelligent, as Earth life was for millions of years before early humans began using tools really quite recently.
But the numbers are still such that the apparent absence of star-travelling aliens could make you worry about the viability of technological civilisation if, like Professor Lineweaver, you learn your astrophysics out of textbooks and lectures (and publish your research, as we see here, in hefty boffinry journals like the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society).
But if movies, speculofictive novels and TV have taught us anything here on the Reg alien life desk, it is that in fact the galaxy is swarming with star-travelling aliens (and/or humans taken secretly from planet Earth for mysterious purposes in the past, or perhaps humans from somewhere else etc). The reason we don’t know about them is that they don’t want us to.
These sulfur bacteria haven’t evolved for billions of years.
Credit: UCLA Center for the Study of Evolution and the Origin of Life
Excerpt from natmonitor.com
By Justin Beach
If there was a Guinness World Record for not evolving, it would be held by a sulfur-cycling microorganism found off the course of Australia. According to research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they have not evolved in any way in more than two billion years and have survived five mass extinction events.
According to the researchers behind the paper, the lack of evolution actually supports Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection.
The researchers examined the microorganisms, which are too small to see with the naked eye, in samples of rocks from the coastal waters of Western Australia. Next they examined samples of the same bacteria from the same region in rocks 2.3 billion years old. Both sets of bacteria are indistinguishable from modern sulfur bacteria found off the coast of Chile.
“It seems astounding that life has not evolved for more than 2 billion years — nearly half the history of the Earth. Given that evolution is a fact, this lack of evolution needs to be explained,” said J. William Schopf, a UCLA professor of earth, planetary and space sciences in the UCLA College who was the study’s lead author in a statement.
Critics of Darwin’s theory of evolution might be tempted to jump on this discovery as proof that Darwin was wrong, but that would be a mistake.
Darwin’s work focused more on species that changed, rather than species that didn’t. However, there is nothing in Darwin’s work that states that a successful species that has found it’s niche in an ecosystem has to change. Unless there is change in the ecosystem or competition for resources there would be no reason for change.
“The rule of biology is not to evolve unless the physical or biological environment changes, which is consistent with Darwin. These microorganisms are well-adapted to their simple, very stable physical and biological environment. If they were in an environment that did not change but they nevertheless evolved, that would have shown that our understanding of Darwinian evolution was seriously flawed.” said Schopf, who also is director of UCLA’s Center for the Study of Evolution and the Origin of Life.
It is likely that there were genetic mutations in the organisms. Mutations are fairly random and happen in all species, but unless those mutations are improvements that help the species function better in the environment, they usually do not get passed on.
Schopf said that the findings provide further proof that Darwin’s ideas were right.
The oldest fossils analyzed for the study date back to the Great Oxidation Event. This event, which occurred between 2.2 and 2.4 billion years ago, saw a substantial increase in Earth’s oxygen levels. That period also saw an increase in sulfates and nitrates, which is all that the microorganisms would have needed to survive and reproduce.
Shopf and his team used Raman spectroscopy, which allows scientists to examine the composition and chemistry of rocks as well as confocal laser scary microscopy to generate 3-D images of fossils embedded in rock.
The research was funded by NASA Astrobiology Institute, in the hope that it will help the space agency to find life elsewhere.
There is nothing better than a bit of mythbusting (which accounts for the popularity of the television program of the same name), so here we are again, presenting you with a new list of terribly common misconceptions and myths – this time about science.
The Myth: Evolution causes something to go from “lower” to “higher”
While it is a fact that natural selection weeds out unhealthy genes from the gene pool, there are many cases where an imperfect organism has survived. Some examples of this are fungi, sharks, crayfish, and mosses – these have all remained essentially the same over a great period of time. These organisms are all sufficiently adapted to their environment to survive without improvement.
Other taxa have changed a lot, but not necessarily for the better. Some creatures have had their environments changed and their adaptations may not be as well suited to their new situation. Fitness is linked to their environment, not to progress.
The Myth: When exposed to the vacuum of space, the human body pops
This myth is the result of science fiction movies which use it to add excitement or drama to the plot. In fact, a human can survive for 15 – 30 seconds in outer space as long as they breathe out before the exposure (this prevents the lungs from bursting and sending air into the bloodstream). After 15 or so seconds, the lack of oxygen causes unconsciousness which eventually leads to death by asphyxiation.
The Myth: Polaris is the brightest star in the northern hemisphere night sky
Sirius is actually brighter with a magnitude of ?1.47 compared to Polaris’ 1.97 (the lower the number the brighter the star). The importance of Polaris is that its position in the sky marks North – and for that reason it is also called the “North Star”. Polaris is the brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor and, interestingly, is only the current North Star as pole stars change over time because stars exhibit a slow continuous drift with respect to the Earth’s axis.
The Myth: Food that drops on the floor is safe to eat if you pick it up within five seconds
This is utter bunkum which should be obvious to most readers. If there are germs on the floor and the food lands on them, they will immediately stick to the food. Having said that, eating germs and dirt is not always a bad thing as it helps us to develop a robust immune system. I prefer to have a “how-tasty-is-it” rule: if it is something really tasty, it can sit there for ten minutes for all I care – I will still eat it.
The Myth: There is a dark side of the moon
Actually – every part of the moon is illuminated at sometime by the sun. This misconception has come about because there is a side of the moon which is never visible to the earth. This is due to tidal locking; this is due to the fact that Earth’s gravitational pull on the moon is so immense that it can only show one face to us. Wikipedia puts it rather smartly thus: “Tidal locking occurs when the gravitational gradient makes one side of an astronomical body always face another; for example, one side of the Earth’s Moon always faces the Earth. A tidally locked body takes just as long to rotate around its own axis as it does to revolve around its partner. This synchronous rotation causes one hemisphere constantly to face the partner body.”
The Myth: Brain cells can’t regenerate – if you kill a brain cell, it is never replaced
The reason for this myth being so common is that it was believed and taught by the science community for a very long time. But in 1998, scientists at the Sweden and the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California discovered that brain cells in mature humans can regenerate. It had previously been long believed that complex brains would be severely disrupted by new cell growth, but the study found that the memory and learning center of the brain can create new cells – giving hope for an eventual cure for illnesses like Alzheimer’s.
The Myth: A penny dropped from a very high building can kill a pedestrian below
This myth is so common it has even become a bit of a cliche in movies. The idea is that if you drop a penny from the top of a tall building (such as the Empire State Building) – it will pick up enough speed to kill a person if it lands on them on the ground. But the fact is, the aerodynamics of a penny are not sufficient to make it dangerous. What would happen in reality is that the person who gets hit would feel a sting – but they would certainly survive the impact.
The Myth: Meteors are heated by friction when entering the atmosphere
When a meteoroid enters the atmosphere of the earth (becoming a meteor), it is actually the speed compressing the air in front of the object that causes it to heat up. It is the pressure on the air that generates a heat intense enough to make the rock so hot that is glows brilliantly for our viewing pleasure (if we are lucky enough to be looking in the sky at the right time). We should also dispel the myth about meteors being hot when they hit the earth – becoming meteorites. Meteorites are almost always cold when they hit – and in fact they are often found covered in frost. This is because they are so cold from their journey through space that the entry heat is not sufficient to do more than burn off the outer layers.
The Myth: Lightning never strikes the same place twice
Next time you see lightning strike and you consider running to the spot to protect yourself from the next bolt, remember this item! Lightning does strike the same place twice – in fact it is very common. Lightning obviously favors certain areas such as high trees or buildings. In a large field, the tallest object is likely to be struck multiple times until the lightning moves sufficiently far away to find a new target. The Empire State Building gets struck around 25 times a year.
The Myth: There is no gravity in space
In fact, there is gravity in space – a lot of it. The reason that astronauts appear to be weightless because they are orbiting the earth. They are falling towards the earth but moving sufficiently sideways to miss it. So they are basically always falling but never landing. Gravity exists in virtually all areas of space. When a shuttle reaches orbit height (around 250 miles above the earth), gravity is reduced by only 10%.
Inspired by an excellent LiveScience Article. This article is licensed under the GFDL because it contains quotations from Wikipedia.
|All four sides of the Sumerian kings list artifact|
The following work is a translation provided by Oxford University (England), of a prism now in the Weld-Blundell collection of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, England. Known more popularly as the Sumerian kings list, it is a list compiled from fifteen or more different texts, tracing the rulers of certain Sumerian cities in succession. The original form of the list is believed to go back to approximately 2,000 BC.
What is remarkable about this list is the lengths of reigns of a number of kings, some listed as long as 43,200 years. I find several possibilities for the long reigns inscribed on this artifact.
1. This artifact is a hoax. I do not see this as likely however, as this artifact appears to be taken seriously by credible sources, namely Oxford University.
2. The scribes and artisans who created the list erred. I do not see this as a very likely explanation either, as even the most mathematically challenged scribe would have noticed the hugely obvious oversights.
3. The lengths of reigns was propaganda, conning the masses into seeing their kings as more god-like. This scenario is at least plausible, as history books state that as recently as the 20th century, the Japanese people believed their emperor Hirohito was a god, only to be shocked to learn the truth as he made public appearances after Japan’s defeat at the end of World War 2.
4. A handful of modern day scholars believe the years listed are multiplied equations, with kings receiving exaggerated lengths of reigns dependent upon their achievements while ruler. I see this as possible, though I am not convinced. Why choose such an odd way to honor a past king? Sumerians have preserved in tablet and other forms such accurate record keeping on so many varied subjects. Would they really choose to distort their records, records they carefully preserved for future generations, to honor past kings? There is also a lack of solid evidence to support this theory.
5. Humans lived far longer life spans in our past. I see this theory as certainly possible.
6. Ancient Sumerian kings were of extraterrestrial origin.
What I find most intriguing is that possibilities number 5 & 6 appear the most likely explanations to the Sumerian king list.
The Sumerian king list: Translation provided by Oxford University etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk
(In the following translation, mss. are referred to by the sigla used by Vincente 1995; from those listed there, mss. Fi, Go, P6, and WB 62 were not used; if not specified by a note, numerical data come from ms. WB.)
1-39After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira. In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43200 years. En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28800 years. Dumuzid, the shepherd, ruled for 36000 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 108000 years. Then Bad-tibira fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Larag. In Larag, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28800 years. 1 king; he ruled for 28800 years. Then Laragfell (?) and the kingship was taken to Zimbir. In Zimbir, En-men-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21000 years. 1 king; he ruled for 21000 years. Then Zimbir fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Curuppag. In Curuppag, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18600 years. 1 king; he ruled for 18600 years. In 5 cities 8 kings; they ruled for 241200 years. Then the flood swept over.
40-94After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kic. In Kic, Jucur became king; he ruled for 1200 years. Kullassina-bel ruled for 960 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 900) years. Nanjiclicma ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 670 (?) years. En-tarah-ana ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 420 years ……, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Babum …… ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 300 years. Puannumruled for 840 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 240) years. Kalibum ruled for 960 (ms. P2+L2 has instead:900) years. Kalumum ruled for 840 (mss. P3+BT14, Su1 have instead:900) years. Zuqaqip ruled for 900 (ms. Su1 has instead: 600)years. (In mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5, the 10th and 11th rulers of the dynasty precede the 8th and 9th.) Atab (mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5 have instead: Aba) ruled for 600 years. Macda, the son of Atab, ruled for 840 (ms. Su1 has instead:720) years. Arwium, the son of Macda, ruled for 720 years. Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries, became king; he ruled for 1500 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 635) years. Balih, the son of Etana, ruled for 400 (mss. P2+L2, Su1 have instead: 410) years. En-me-nuna ruled for 660 (ms. P2+L2 has instead:621) years. Melem-Kic, the son of En-me-nuna, ruled for 900 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1560 are the years of the dynasty of En-me-nuna . Barsal-nuna, the son of En-me-nuna,(mss. P5, P3+BT14 have instead: Barsal-nuna) ruled for 1200 years. Zamug, the son of Barsal-nuna, ruled for 140 years. Tizqar, the son of Zamug, ruled for 305 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1620 + X ……. Ilku ruled for 900 years. Iltasadum ruled for 1200 years. En-men-barage-si, who made the land of Elamsubmit, became king; he ruled for 900 years. Aga, the son of En-men-barage-si, ruled for 625 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1525 are the years of the dynasty of En-men-barage-si. 23 kings; they ruled for 24510 years, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Then Kic was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana.
95-133In E-ana, Mec-ki-aj-gacer, the son of Utu, became lord and king; he ruled for 324 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 325)years. Mec-ki-aj-gacer entered the sea and disappeared. Enmerkar, the son of Mec-ki-aj-gacer, the king of Unug, who built Unug (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have instead: under whom Unug was built), became king; he ruled for 420 (ms. TL has instead: 900 + X) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 745 are the years of the dynasty of Mec-ki-aj-gacer. (ms TL adds instead: ……; he ruled for 5 + X years.) Lugalbanda, the shepherd, ruled for 1200 years. Dumuzid, the fisherman, whose city was Kuara, ruled for 100 (ms. TL has instead: 110) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed. Gilgamec, whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years. Ur-Nungal, the son of Gilgamec, ruled for 30 years. Udul-kalama, the son of Ur-Nungal (ms. Su1 has instead: Ur-lugal), ruled for 15 years. La-ba’cum ruled for 9 years. En-nun-tarah-ana ruled for 8 years. Mec-he, the smith, ruled for 36 years. Melem-ana (ms. Su2 has instead:Til-kug (?) ……) ruled for 6 (ms. Su2 has instead: 900)years. Lugal-kitun (?) ruled for 36 (ms. Su2 has instead: 420)years. 12 kings; they ruled for 2310 (ms. Su2 has instead: 3588) years. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.
134-147In Urim, Mec-Ane-pada became king; he ruled for 80 years. Mec-ki-aj-Nanna(ms. P2+L2 has instead: Mec-ki-aj-nuna), the son of Mec-Ane-pada, became king; he ruled for 36 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 30)years. Elulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 25 years. Baluluruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 36 years. (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have:) 4 kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 171 years. Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.
148-159In Awan, …… became king; he ruled for …… years. …… ruled for …… years. …… ruled for 36 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 356 years. Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kic.
160-178In Kic, Susuda, the fuller, became king; he ruled for 201 + X years. Dadasig ruled for (ms. vD has:) 81 years. Mamagal, the boatman, ruled for 360 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 420) years. Kalbum, the son of Mamagal (ms. WB has instead:Magalgal), ruled for 195 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 132)years. Tuge (?) ruled for 360 years. Men-nuna, (ms. L1+N1 adds:) the son of Tuge (?), ruled for 180 years. (in mss. L1+N1, TL, the 7th and 8th rulers of the dynasty are in reverse order) …… ruled for 290 years. Lugalju ruled for 360 (ms. L1+N1 has instead:420) years. 8 kings; they ruled for 3195 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 3792) years. Then Kic was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi.
179-185In Hamazi, Hadanic became king; he ruled for 360 years. 1 king; he ruled for 360 years. Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: was returned a second time) to Unug.
(In mss. IB, L1+N1, TL, the 2nd dynasty of Unug of ll. 185-191 is preceded by the 2nd dynasty of Urim of ll. 192-203.)
186-192In Unug, En-cakanca-ana became king; he ruled for 60 years. Lugal-ure(ms. P3+BT14 has instead: Lugal-kinice-dudu (?)) ruled for 120 years. Argandea ruled for 7 years. (ms. L1+N1 has:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) 187 years. Then Unug was defeated (ms. TL has instead:destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Urim.
193-204In Urim, Nani became king; he ruled for (ms. vD has:) 120 + X (ms. IB has instead: 54 + X) years. Mec-ki-aj-Nanna, the son of Nani, ruled for (ms. vD has:) 48years. ……, the son (?) of ……, ruled for (ms. IB has:) 2 years. (ms. IB has:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) 582 (ms. TL has instead:578) years. (ms. vD has instead: 2 kings; they ruled for 120 + X years.) Then Urimwas defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Adab.
205-210In Adab, Lugal-Ane-mundu became king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 90 years. (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 1 king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 90 years. Then Adab was defeated (ms. TL has instead:destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Mari.
211-223In Mari, Anbu (?) became king; he ruled for 30 (ms. TL has instead:90) years. Anba (?), the son of Anbu (?), ruled for 17 (ms. TL has instead: 7) years. Bazi, the leatherworker, ruled for 30 years. Zizi, the fuller, ruled for 20 years. Limer, the gudu priest, ruled for 30 years. Carrum-iter ruled for 9 (ms. TL has instead: 7) years. 6 kings; they ruled for 136 (ms. TL has instead:184) years. Then Mari was defeated (ms. TL has instead:destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Kic.
224-231In Kic, Kug-Bau, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kic, became king; she ruled for 100 years. 1 king; she ruled for 100 years. Then Kic was defeated (ms. TL has instead:destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Akcak.
232-243In Akcak, Unzi became king; he ruled for 30 years. Undalulu ruled for 6(mss. L1+N1, S have instead: 12) years. Urur ruled for (ms. IB has instead: was king (?) for) 6 years. Puzur-Nirah ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) 20 years. Icu-Il ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) 24 years. Cu-Suen, the son of Icu-Il, ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, TL have:) 7 (ms. Su1 has instead: 24) years. (mss. S, Su1, TL have:) 6 kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, S, TL have:) 99(ms. Su1 has instead: 116) years (ms. IB has instead: 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) 87 years). Then Akcak was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Akcak was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Kic.
(mss. IB, S, Su1, Su3+Su4 list the 3rd and 4th dynasty of Kic of ll. 224-231 and ll. 244-258, respectively, as one dynasty)
244-258In Kic, Puzur-Suen, the son of Kug-Bau, became king; he ruled for 25 years. Ur-Zababa, the son of Puzur-Suen, ruled for 400 (mss. P3+BT14, S have instead:6) (ms. IB has instead: 4 + X) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 131 are the years of the dynasty of Kug-Bau. Zimudar (ms. TL has instead: Ziju-iake) ruled for 30 (ms. IB has instead: 30 + X)years. Uß³i-watar, the son of Zimudar (ms. TL has instead: Ziju-iake), ruled for 7 (ms. S has instead: 6) years. Ectar-muti ruled for 11 (ms. Su1 has instead: 17 (?)) years. Icme-Camacruled for 11 years. (ms. Su1 adds:) Cu-ilicu ruled for 15 years. Nanniya, the jeweller, (ms. Su1 has instead: Zimudar) (ms. IB has instead: ……) ruled for 7 (ms. S has instead: 3) years. 7 kings; they ruled for 491 (ms. Su1 has instead: 485) years (ms. S has instead: 8 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) 586 years). Then Kic was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Kic was abolished) and the kingship was taken (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: was returned a third time) to Unug.
(ms. IB omits the 3rd dynasty of Unug of ll. 258-263)
259-265In Unug, Lugal-zage-si became king; he ruled for 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 34) years. 1 king; he ruled for 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 34)years. Then Unug was defeated(ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Unug was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Agade.
266-296In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade (ms. L1+N1 has instead:under whom Agade was built); he ruled for 56 (ms. L1+N1 has instead:55) (ms. TL has instead: 54) years. Rimuc, the son of Sargon, ruled for 9 (ms. IB has instead:7) (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 15) years. Man-icticcu, the older brother of Rimuc, the son of Sargon, ruled for 15 (ms. L1+N1 has instead:7) years. Naram-Suen, the son of Man-icticcu, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P3+BT14 have:) 56 years. Car-kali-carri, the son of Naram-Suen, ruled for (ms. L1+N1, Su+Su4 have:) 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead:24) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 157 are the years of the dynasty of Sargon. Then who was king? Who was the king? (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: who was king? Who indeed was king?) Irgigi was king, Imi was king, Nanûm was king (in mss. L1+N1, Su3+Su4, Imi and Nanûm are in reverse order) , Ilulu was king, and the (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) 4 of them ruled for only (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) 3years. Dudu ruled for 21 years. Cu-Durul, the son of Dudu, ruled for 15 (ms. IB has instead: 18) years. 11 kings; they ruled for 181 years (ms. S has instead: 12 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) 197 years) (mss. Su1, Su3+Su4, which omit Dudu and Cu-Durul, have instead: 9 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su1 has:) 161 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 177) years. Then Agade was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Agade was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Unug.
297-307In Unug, Ur-nijin became king; he ruled for 7 (mss. IB, S have instead: 3) (ms. Su1 has instead:15) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 30)years. Ur-gigir, the son of Ur-nijin, ruled for 6 (ms. IB has instead: 7) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 7) years. Kuda ruled for 6 years. Puzur-ili ruled for 5 (ms. IB has instead: 20) years. Ur-Utu ruled for 6(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: Ur-Utu), the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 25 (ms. Su1 has instead: Lugal-melem, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 7) years. 5 kings; they ruled for 30 (ms. IB has instead:43) (mss. PÝ+Ha, S have instead:26) years (ms. Su3+Su4, which omits Kuda and Puzur-ili, has instead: 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su3+Su4 has:) 47 years). Unug was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Unug was abolished) and the kingship was taken to the army (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:land) of Gutium.
308-334In the army (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:land) of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years(ms. L1+N1 has instead: they had no king; they ruled themselves for 5 years). Then Inkicuc (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:……) ruled for 6 (ms. L1+Ni1 has instead: 7) years. Zarlagabruled for 6 years. Culme (ms. L1+N1 has instead: Yarlagac) ruled for 6 years. Silulumec (ms. Mi has instead:Silulu) ruled for 6(ms. G has instead: 7) years. Inimabakec ruled for 5 (ms. Mi has instead: Duga ruled for 6) years. Igecauc ruled for 6 (ms. Mi has instead: Ilu-an (?) ruled for 3) years. Yarlagab ruled for 15 (ms. Mi has instead: 5) years. Ibate ruled for 3 years. Yarla (ms. L1+N1 has instead:Yarlangab (?)) ruled for 3 years. Kurum (ms. L1+N1 has instead: ……) ruled for 1 (ms. Mi has instead: 3) years. Apil-kin ruled for 3 years. La-erabum (?) ruled for 2 years. Irarum ruled for 2 years. Ibranum ruled for 1 year. Hablumruled for 2 years. Puzur-Suen, the son of Hablum, ruled for 7 years. Yarlaganda ruled for 7 years. …… ruled for 7 years. Tiriga (?) ruled for 40 days. 21 kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) 124 years and 40 days (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 25 years). Then the army of Gutium was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Unug.
335-340In Unug, Utu-hejal became king; he ruled for 427 years, …… days (ms. IB has instead: 26 years, 2 + X months, and 15 days) (ms. J has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days) (ms. TL has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days). 1 king; he ruled for 427 years, …… days (ms. J has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days) (ms. TL has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days). Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.
341-354In Urim, Ur-Namma became king; he ruled for 18 years. Culgi, the son of Ur-Namma, ruled for 46 (mss. Su3+Su4, TL have instead: 48) (ms. P5 has instead:58) years. Amar-Suena, the son of Culgi, ruled for 9(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 25) years. Cu-Suen, the son of Amar-Suena, ruled for 9 (ms. P5 has instead: 7) (ms. Su1 has instead: 20 + X) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 16) years. Ibbi-Suen, the son of Cu-Suen, ruled for 24 (mss. P5, Su1 have instead:25) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 15)(ms. TL has instead: 23 (?)) years. 4 kings; they ruled for 108 years (mss. J, P5, Su1, Su3+Su4 have instead: 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. P5 has:) 117 (ms. Su1 has instead: 120 + X) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 123) years). Then Urim was defeated (ms. P5 has instead: Then the reign of Urim was abolished). (ms. Su3+Su4 adds:) The very foundation of Sumer was torn out (?). The kingship was taken to Isin.
355-377In Isin, Icbi-Erra became king; he ruled for 33(ms. P5 has instead: 32) years. Cu-ilicu, the son of Icbi-Erra, ruled for 20 (ms. P5 has instead: 10) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) years. Iddin-Dagan, the son of Cu-ilicu, ruled for 21 (ms. Su1 has instead: 25) years. Icme-Dagan, the son of Iddin-Dagan, ruled for (mss. P2, P5 have:) 20 (ms. Mi has instead:18) years. Lipit-Ectar, the son of Icme-Dagan (ms. P2 has instead:Iddin-Dagan), ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2, P5 have:) 11 years. Ur-Ninurta (mss. L1+N1, P2 add:) , the son of Ickur— may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life —ruled for (ms. P5 has:) 28 years. Bur-Suen, the son of Ur-Ninurta, ruled for 21 years. Lipit-Enlil, the son of Bur-Suen, ruled for 5 years. Erra-imitti ruled for 8 (mss. P5, TL have instead: 7)years. (ms. P5 adds:) …… ruled for …… 6 months. Enlil-bani ruled for 24 years. Zambiya ruled for 3 years. Iter-pica ruled for 4 years. Ur-dul-kugaruled for 4 years. Suen-magirruled for 11 years. (ms. P5 adds:) Damiq-ilicu, the son of Suen-magir, ruled for 23 years. 14 kings; they ruled for 203 years (ms. P5 has instead: 225 years and 6 months).
(Mss. P2+L2, L1+N1 and P4+Ha conclude with a summary of the post-diluvian dynasties; the translation of ll. 378-431 uses numerical data from each mss. but follows the wording of P2+L2 and L1+N1)
378-431A total of 39 kings ruled for 14409 + X years, 3 months and 3 1/2 days, 4 times in Kic. A total of 22 kings ruled for 2610 + X years, 6 months and 15 days, 5 times in Unug. A total of 12 kings ruled for 396 years, 3 times in Urim. A total of 3 kings ruled for 356 years, once in Awan. A total of 1 king ruled for 420 years, once in Hamazi.16 lines missing
A total of 12 (?) kings ruled for 197 (?) years, once in Agade. A total of 21 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 23) kings ruled for 125 years and 40 days (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 99 years), once in the army of Gutium. A total of 11 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 16) kings ruled for 159 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 226)years, once in Isin. There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised. A total of 134 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 139) kings, who altogether ruled for 28876 + X (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 3443 + X) years. 21.
03.ix.1999 : GZ : adapting translation
04.xii.1999 : JAB : proofreading
08.xii.1999 : GC : tagging
14.i.2000 : ER : proofreading SGML
14.i.2000 : ER : converting to HTML 4.0
7.ix.2001 : ER : header and footer reformatted; substantive content of file not changed
|Artist’s impression of the Milky Way. Its hot halo appears to be stripping away the star-forming atomic hydrogen from its companion dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Image credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF|
Astronomers have discovered that our nearest galactic neighbors are devoid of star-forming gas, and that our Milky Way is to blame.
New observations by large radio telescopes reveal that within a well-defined boundary around our galaxy, dwarf galaxies are completely devoid of hydrogen gas. Beyond this point, dwarf galaxies are teeming with star-forming material.
The Milky Way galaxy is actually the largest member of a compact clutch of galaxies that are bound together by gravity. Swarming around our home galaxy is a menagerie of smaller dwarf galaxies, the smallest of which are the relatively nearby dwarf spheroidals, which may be the leftover building blocks of galaxy formation.
Further out are a number of similarly sized and slightly misshaped dwarf irregular galaxies, which are not gravitationally bound to the Milky Way and may be relative newcomers to our galactic neighborhood.
Kristine Spekkens is an assistant professor at the Royal Military College of Canada and lead author on a paper published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. She said:
“Astronomers wondered if, after billions of years of interaction, the nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies have all the same star-forming ‘stuff’ that we find in more distant dwarf galaxies.”
Previous studies have shown that the more distant dwarf irregular galaxies have large reservoirs of neutral hydrogen gas, the fuel for star formation. These past observations, however, were not sensitive enough to rule out the presence of this gas in the smallest dwarf spheroidal galaxies.
“What we found is that there is a clear break, a point near our home galaxy where dwarf galaxies are completely devoid of any traces of neutral atomic hydrogen.”
Bottom line: New observations by large radio telescopes reveal that within a well-defined boundary around our galaxy, dwarf galaxies are completely devoid of star-making hydrogen gas. Astronomers say our Milky Way is to blame.
|Neighboring galaxies to our own Milky Way (Descriptions below)|
|NAME||DISTANCE (kpc)||DISCOVERY PAPER|
|Canes Major||7.2||Martin et al. 2004, A dwarf galaxy remnant in Canis Major: the fossil of an in-plane accretion on to the Milky Way|
|Segue 3||17||Belokurov et al. 2010, Big Fish, Little Fish: Two New Ultra-Faint Satellites of the Milky Way|
|Segue 1||23||Belokurov et al. 2007, Cats and Dogs, Hair and A Hero: A Quintet of New Milky Way Companions|
|Sagittarius||24||Ibata, Gilmore & Irwin, 1994, A dwarf satellite galaxy in Sagittarius 1995, Sagittarius: the nearest dwarf galaxy|
|Segue 2||34.7||Belokurov et al. 2009, The discovery of Segue 2: a prototype of the population of satellitesof satellites|
|Bootes II||43||Walsh, Jerjen & Willman, 2007, A Pair of Bootes: A New Milky Way Satellite|
|Coma||44||Belokurov et al. 2007, Cats and Dogs, Hair and A Hero: A Quintet of New Milky Way Companions|
|Willman 1 (SDSSJ1049+5103)||45||Willman et al. 2005, A New Milky Way Companion: Unusual Globular Cluster or Extreme Dwarf Satellite?|
|Bootes III||46||Grillmair 2009, Four New Stellar Debris Streams in the Galactic Halo|
|Bootes||60||Belokurov et al. 2006, A Faint New Milky Way Satellite in Bootes|
|Ursa Minor||66||A.G. Wilson of the Lowell Observatory in 1955, Sculptor-Type Systems in the Local Group of Galaxies|
|Sculptor (Scl)||79||discovered in 1938 by Harlow Shapley, A Stellar System of a New Type|
|Draco||82||A.G. Wilson of the Lowell Observatory in 1955, Sculptor-Type Systems in the Local Group of Galaxies|
|Sextans||89||Mike Irwin, M.T. Bridgeland, P.S. Bunclark and R.G. McMahon, 1990 A new satellite galaxy of the Milky Way in the constellation of Sextans|
|Ursa Major (UMa)||100||Willman et al. 2005, A New Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy in Ursa Major|
|Carina||103||Cannon, R. D., Hawarden, T. G., & Tritton, S. B., 1977, A new Sculptor-type dwarf elliptical galaxy in Carina|
|Hercules||140||Belokurov et al. 2007, Cats and Dogs, Hair and A Hero: A Quintet of New Milky Way Companions|
|Fornax||140||discovered in 1938 by Harlow Shapley, described in “Two Stellar Systems of a New Kind”, Nature, Vol. 142, p. 715|
|Canes Venatici II||150||Sakamoto & Hasegawa 2006, Discovery of a Faint Old Stellar System at 150 kpc|
|Leo IV||160||Belokurov et al. 2007, Cats and Dogs, Hair and A Hero: A Quintet of New Milky Way Companions|
|Pisces II||182||Belokurov et al. 2010, Big Fish, Little Fish: Two New Ultra-Faint Satellites of The Milky Way|
|Leo II (Leo B)||208||Robert G. Harrington and Albert George Wilson, 1950, Two New Stellar Systems in Leo|
|Canes Venatici||220||Zucker et al. 2006 A New Milky Way Dwarf Satellite in Canes Venatici|
|Leo I||254||Robert G. Harrington and Albert George Wilson, 1950, Two New Stellar Systems in Leo|
ByScott Sutherland Meteorologist, theweathernetwork.com
In 2006, when the International Astronomical Union (IAU) set down an official definition for what a ‘planet’ is, they came up with three rules:
1) The object must be in orbit around the Sun,
2) The object must be massive enough to be a sphere by its own gravitational force. More specifically, its own gravity should pull it into a shape of hydrostatic equilibrium, and
3) It must have cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.
Everything in the solar system technically orbits around the Sun, of course. Something like the Moon doesn’t qualify, though, even though it’s massive enough to be roughly spherical and its ‘neighborhood’ is as clear as Earth’s is, because it only goes around the Sun as a consequence of being in orbit around Earth. Same goes for the moons of the other planets. Asteroids and comets don’t qualify because they’re not big enough to become spherical by their own gravity. Even Ceres (which is roughly spherical) doesn’t make the cut, because it’s in the asteroid belt, thus its ‘neighborhood’ isn’t clear.
Pluto suffers the same problem as Ceres. It’s definitely in orbit around the Sun (or at least the common gravitational focus it shares with Charon is in orbit around the Sun). It is massive enough to be a sphere. It just isn’t considered to have cleared its neighborhood. So, not a planet, at least by the IAU rules.
However, while the first two rules are pretty clear and easy to determine, third isn’t. According to Prof. Abel Méndez, of the University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo, “there is no standard ‘cleared’ metric.” It seems that due to the very existence of the Kuiper Belt, Pluto loses its status. However, exactly how cleared does the neighborhood have to be? There are millions of near-Earth asteroids flying around us, and there are even some asteroids that are locked into the same orbit as Earth (‘Earth trojans’). There are even more asteroids near Mars’ orbit, due to its proximity to the asteroid belt. Jupiter has an extremely large collection of asteroids in its orbit, both preceding it (the Greeks) and following behind (the Trojans).
Even discounting these cases, as it is, when you go further out into the solar system, it gets harder and harder for an object to clear its neighborhood. This is simply because it makes fewer orbits around the Sun compared to objects closer to the Sun, and thus it encounters the other objects in its orbit far less often. Consider Earth, going around the Sun once every year, with Pluto orbiting every 247 years. So, whereas Earth has made roughly 4.5 billion trips around the Sun since it formed, Pluto has only made 18 million similar trips (if it formed at roughly the same time).
As Astronomy magazine editor David Eicher said: “At the Pluto-like distance of 40 astronomical units — 40 times farther away from the Sun then we are now — Earth would not clear its orbit of asteroids, and so would Earth then not be classified as a planet?”
Also, since recent evidence has pointed to the fact that there may be two super-Earth-sized objects out beyond Pluto, both of them would be considered ‘dwarf planets’ as well, despite one potentially being 10 times the mass of Earth and the other being up to 100 times the mass of Earth.
So, when it comes to Pluto, what’s the case for making it a planet again? Based on the facts above and Eicher’s own thoughts:
1) the definition of what ‘cleared the neighborhood around its orbit’ is, itself, unclear
2) it seems unjustifiable that an object even larger than the Earth would not be considered a planet, simply because it orbits far out in our solar system
3) an object’s intrinsic characteristics should dictate what kind of object it is, not its location.
Indeed, if you take the IAU’s definition and attempt to apply it to all objects we know about, the multitude of worlds that we’ve discovered outside our solar system aren’t technically planets, despite being large enough and even if they’ve cleared their orbit, because they don’t orbit around the Sun.
So, perhaps it’s time to revise the IAU’s definition, not only to reconsider Pluto for planetary status, but also to make the definition applicable to a wider range of objects. Even if they changed the first rule to have ‘a star’ instead of ‘the Sun’ and changed the emphasis of the third rule to be that the object is large enough compared to the rest of the objects in its orbit to be capable of clearing its neighborhood (given enough time), it might be a much better set of conditions to measure everything against.
As Astronomy‘s editors offer up their time and efforts to host a renewed debate about Pluto, what do you think about its status? Should it be a planet again, remain as a dwarf planet, or perhaps something else? Leave your ideas in the comments below.
Harvard researchers rocked the science community last March with an apparent discovery of gravitational ripples that gave credence to cosmic inflation theory – a finding that met as much skepticism as enthusiasm. Now, further analysis raises more doubts.
“Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.” This phrase, popularized by the late Carl Sagan, kept going through my head on March 17, the day that researchers involved with BICEP2, a telescope in Antarctica, made a big announcement at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The researchers reported that BICEP2 detected gravitational waves from the first moments after the big bang, a feat, which if confirmed, would open up a new field of study and would surely be recognized in a future Nobel Prize.
What if EVERYONE was wealthy beyond their wildest dreams and how would that affect our perceived “freedom”?
I often use an analogy of freedom as a man walking his dog. The man is the government, you are the dog and the leash is your freedom.
And this isn’t even “freedom”. These are “civil liberties”.
In an ideal world, there would only be two rules or laws:
1. Love everyone. 2. Respect everything.
What we are granted are civil liberties and through false flag events such as 911, these have become severely restricted. Please keep in mind that “liberties” are FAR from “freedom”.
If there was no such thing as money
My response to them is, “If there was no such thing as money, then what would YOU be doing with your life?”
I recently met a young couple and asked them the above question. The woman stated, without hesitation, that she would be working with animals in some manner. The man, however, was somewhat perplexed at this question and basically had no answer and honestly, at this age, I probably would have been in the same boat.
I asked a 63 year old man the same question. His answer was that he would travel the world. I told him eventually he would want to do something to contribute to society and he responded, “At my age, I could travel for the rest of my life.” I let it go at that but deep down, I know he would eventually do something to contribute to society.
If you can imagine a world without money, then you can ultimately discover your life purpose and why you are here at this particular point in space and time. Certainly, we did not incarnate to become economic slaves to a failed system of fiat currency (or a slave to any currency, for that matter) but because of our perceived belief that we NEED money to survive, we perpetuate this cycle of insanity.
There is no “Free Will” within this matrix until we can ultimately be free to do whatever we choose to do. In a system on economic slavery, free will would quickly lead to chaos but in a world of prosperity and abundance, without money, we could actually be free to do virtually anything. Morality would be the overriding principle which would prevent you from hurting others. In a free willed society of prosperity and abundance, why would anyone want to do such a thing?
Granted, there would be some people who would want to either rule over everyone else or would want more than their share due to the perpetual programming that we need to have as much as we can to survive, but this is a fallacy.
Predicting the economic future
We can also expect bioterrorism, which may ultimately trace back to the Federal Reserve. In a recent article, it was noted that the CDC owns the patent on the Ebola virus and they will collect royalties on all future Ebola vaccines. A global pandemic would not only wipe out millions of “useless eaters” but would also serve as a way to round people up into FEMA camps while detracting the attention from the Fed’s crimes against humanity.
Impending prosperity for all?
What if everyone was wealthy?
Ultimately, people will finally understand that if one person is homeless or hungry, then we ALL are. With Pluto in Capricorn until 2023, we will soon see the complete collapse of money, government and religion. What we do from that point forward is up to us and if I had my say, we would all live in a world with freedom and without money.
About the Author
Copyright Information: Copyright in5d and Gregg Prescott, M.S.. This content may be freely reproduced in full or in part in any form.
We live in a world today where the idea of group power is being rekindled and where it’s momentum is gathering. Humanity as a whole is remembering that it is thoughts and actions of kindness, honesty and equality for all that create positive change.
One initiative that is expanding throughout religious and spiritual groups, as well as on blogs and other social media sites is globally synchronized meditation/prayer gatherings.
To some, believing that thoughts or prayers can influence the physical world around them can be dubious. To a quantum physicist on the other hand, thoughts influencing the world around them are something believed in and something that has repeatedly been shown to be true in scientific studies.
Scientists believe this is due to a coherent resonance being created in the Unified Quantum Field by those meditating.
How then does this spread to an entire group from one localized position?
Think of a laser. Its coherent light is established by what is known in physics as the Field Effect. The Field Effect’s principle, according to the Institute of Science, Technology and Public Policy is “that it is not necessary to act individually on each individual constituent of a system, but that the system can be handled in one stroke at the collective level.”
The 7,000 people meditating created a Field Effect of harmonious coherence that spread throughout the collective–which in turn helped to reduce acts of terrorism (incoherent, disruptive energy).
This effect, which has also been called the “Maharishi Effect,” has had over 600 scientific studies conducted in 33 countries and in over 250 independent research institutions. The evidence overwhelmingly correlates synchronized group prayer and meditation having extremely positive social, political and economic benefits to the world. Positive correlations for numerous health benefits to the individual were also observed and confirmed.
Today this structured and coherent energy is being calculated by the Global Consciousness Project (GCP), whose logistical home is the well-known Institute of Noetic Sciences. The GCP has been collecting data for over 15 years, with up to 70 host sites worldwide, using random number generators. The GCP notes that, “Random number generators (RNGs) based on quantum tunneling produce completely unpredictable sequences of zeroes and ones. But when a great event synchronizes the feelings of millions of people, our network of RNGs becomes subtly structured. We calculate one in a trillion odds that the effect is due to chance. The evidence suggests an emerging noosphere or the unifying field of consciousness described by sages in all cultures.” Major world events, such as the 9/11 attack, Princess Diana’s passing and worldwide meditations, along with many other events, have been recorded by the GCP and has shown that synchronization of the RNG’s has occurred when the minds of many people from around the world were involved.
What then can we do as individuals to help create a better world?
Everyone is invited and encouraged to spread the word to as many people as they wish. Churches, yoga classes, the workplace, meditation partners, friends and groups are all good ways to make this available to more people.
What if I don’t know how to meditate?
I just close my eyes and repeat this word release over and over. When a thought comes up, I feel that thought come up and sense that thought coming up and your goal is, just don’t follow the thought. Don’t obsess about the thought. Don’t just say, “Oh look a thought!”. Come right back to the word release. – Brendon Burchard (Check out the full post here.)
Friends. The rekindling and growing flames of unity within humanity will not stop and will once again be claimed. As famous Pierre Teilhard de Chardin has beautifully written, “Someday after mastering winds, waves, tides and gravity, we shall harness the energies of love, and then, for the second time in the history of the world, man will discover fire.”
About the Author
There are a lot of facts about our reality that have continually been demonstrated through scientific methods, yet haven’t quite been digested by our mainstream knowledge. As indicated by Einstein and many others, time is illusionary. He even said that for those who believe in physics, “the distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.” Then there’s quantum entanglement, which tells us that space is also apparently an illusion. Well, if time and space are both illusions, what is the actual truth? Logically, it would be that there is but one moment and everything is actually a part of the same thing. Then again, there is no room for logic in quantum physics—the subatomic world where the laws of our reality break down and do what scientists like to call, “some crazy-ass shit.”
Suffice to say, the world doesn’t work like our senses and mind tell us it does. There’s something bigger going on. Perhaps we are in a computer simulation, or a hologram, or an illusion created by an almighty God that wants to rediscover everything that it already knows. The details don’t really matter. What we do need to agree on (for the purpose of the Enlightenment Test presented in this article) is that something else exists beyond what we consciously experience, and that this dimension has an effect on how our lives play out. Call it heaven, the world above, the real world, another dimension, or The Twilight Zone, the point is that within that reality, there is only one moment and we are all one consciousness.
Our mythology, dreams, meditations, and instincts have given most of us a glimpse of that reality. Then there are some of us who have increased their experiences within this realm beyond just a glimpse as they’ve grown themselves in life. Far fewer still have been able to touch on this barrier-breaking experience at their choosing. We call these evolved beings, “enlightened.”
With the exception of Bodhisattvas, the Dalai Lama, and various prophets and Messiahs, most enlightened beings aren’t born that way, but attain such a stature through a cyclical process of repeated suffering, reduction of ego, and contentment in what is. Each new stage has its own challenges to be overcome, but when they are, the reward is more of a connection to the light realm and less to the material one. Because of this, the person experiences more light world reality (an increased ability to surpass the restrictions of time and space) and less of the material world reality (less material attachments, reactionary behavior, drama, separation of self (ego) from others, etc).
As a whole population, we have all been becoming more enlightened. This is apparent because we’ve increased our ability to surpass time restrictions (the speed of transportation, information, and communication is increasing geometrically faster) and space restrictions (technology has gotten smaller and smaller, as has weapons, to the point of splitting the atom to yield tremendous power). Eventually, we will all come to a point where we can jump to any space or time instantly, but as of now, some are getting there quicker than others. How can you know if it’s you? By using one of the most basic rules of our reality: the law of cause and effect.
The law of cause and effect says that if you throw a rubber ball against a hard surface, it will bounce back with the same trajectory and velocity (within a vacuum). If you dropped a rubber ball off of The Empire State Building, it would take awhile to hit the ground and then reach it’s highest point. It wouldn’t make it all the way back to you due to the interference of air friction and gravity. But if you were to take a rubber ball and throw it against the floor you’re standing on, it would return to you fairly quickly and likely make it all the way back if not beyond since there’s less interference from competing forces.
This is just how radar and sonar work. One can determine the velocity and position of an object (or one’s self in relation to an object) using high-frequency radio or sound waves reflecting off its surface. Just as the law of cause and effect can be used to determine the position of physical objects within the physical world, it can be used to determine the position of spiritual entities in relation to the spiritual, enlightened world.
As they say in Kabbalah, as above, so below—whatever happens up there is duplicated in a similar fashion here. Kind of like a computer code (above) and how it plays out in a video game (below).
The most noticeable indicators of the enlightened realm are that time is illusionary and that we are all connected. So the closer we are to making those indicators true for ourselves, the closer we are to being enlightened. Using the law of cause and effect (aka, karma when used spiritually), it’s fairly easy to see where you’re at using some very simple tests.
Since every seemingly separate thing is really all one thing, it’s not possible for you to do something to something “separate” without getting the effect. Just as you cannot punch yourself in the stomach without feeling the force, you cannot do onto others without having a similar energy be done onto you.
So whether you publicly embarrass someone, react negatively physically or verbally, cut someone off while driving, accidentally step on someone’s foot, do something nice for someone, show them love, or go out of your way to help them, that energy, in a similar form, is coming your way. From this perspective, the point of being good isn’t to please God, get into heaven, or follow some golden rule, but to enable more positive energies to head your way.
Yes, this could be seen as being selfish, but even knowing these rules, it’s still not as easy as you’d think. Because the more spiritually evolved you become, the more you have to go outside yourself and be inconvenienced to experience growth. It’s not just about being good, but going out of your way to help someone, not talking negatively, not reacting, and putting others first. It’s about breaking your habits, facing your fears, and overcoming your challenges.
To test your proximity to enlightenment, you can use either positive or negative actions on your part. But the key is the intensity. So if you do something really nasty, to the point where you feel it in your gut, make a note of it. Note the time, date, and rate the intensity from 1-10. Do the same thing if you do something very positive—something you feel lighter for having done. The clearest positive deeds are those that inconvenience you to help someone else, preferably, a stranger or even someone you don’t like. After either scenario, you then need to be mindful. These actions will bounce back at you. Not in your next life. Not to be judged in heaven. But in the here and now. They won’t come in the exact same form, but they will evoke a similar response in you that they did for another.
If you’re fairly close to enlightenment, detecting the action will be easy. The veil separating you from the dimension where time and space are one will be thin. Therefore the effect should manifest shortly after, and be similar to, the cause. If it was something positive, it will come back as something you associate positively, whether that’s love, respect, kindness, or even money. It’s more likely to be something physical if the cause was physical. So if you helped with a charity, and gave more than you usually do at the request of say, someone you don’t particularly like, you might find yourself being given a significant coupon from a stranger, getting a helpful financial tip from a friend you haven’t spoken to in awhile (maybe a Facebook friend), or getting an unexpected check in the mail.
If it was something negative, and you’re relatively close to enlightenment, the effect will almost always come in the form of a lesson, like a parent sternly but lovingly disciplining his child for doing something wrong. Lose your temper, react in anger, act selfishly? Keep your eyes open. It’s coming back at you. Sometimes it’ll have a bit of humor to it—the kind of humor that’s ironic and can be laughed at in hindsight. It may be paired with some clues as well.
In fact, watch for signs coming with any of these effects. Just as the velocity and trajectory of a bounced ball can give a hint to the distance, position, and texture of the surface it hit, so too can clues be gathered from the effects of your actions in life. Once, when I was rushing past people in the subway station trying to find my way to another train, a young woman stopped me to say that I looked lost. When I told her the issue, she pointed to the information that was posted right in front of me on the wall. “Sometimes, you just have to look for the signs,” she said with a knowing smile. Indeed.
On the other hand, if you’re not anywhere near enlightenment, the test results will be much harder to recognize. Because you’re deeper within the illusion of time and space, the effect will take much longer than it would for the more enlightened folks. Your radar/sonar/rubber ball bounce will take much longer to reach its source and return to you. Depending where you’re at, it could take days, weeks, months, or even years to bounce back. If years, it’ll probably be close to impossible to figure out. But not to worry, you’re not nearly that far away. If you were, this blog wouldn’t have found you and you certainly wouldn’t be taking the time to read it.
Once you have a good sampling of the amount of time it took various positive and negative causes to have a returned effect in your life, average those times together. That’s your benchmark. Once you have that number, wait about a month and retest. Then retest again a month later. Is the time compressing? Is the cause and effect becoming more similar to one another? Is the proximity of the events happening closer? Congratulations, you are approaching enlightenment! Just by the fact that you are consciously noticing your actions, looking for signs, and performing these tests, the gap should be narrowing. But sometimes, they may not be.
If you find that the causes and effects are happening at increasingly wider gaps of time, space, and similarity, you’re being sucked back into the material world. This is actually a natural process of enlightenment. Just as a muscle must be pumped to grow, so too must you continually be stretched in both directions. You may have had a long enlightened streak but just did the test during one of the steps backwards. Seeing a power-lifter returning a weight to the ground doesn’t mean he didn’t put it up. It just means you caught it on the return. Continue tracking your most intense positive and negative actions and see where they go. You’ll be back on track in no time.
As you begin getting closer to enlightenment, something else becomes more and more apparent as well: the manifestation of your thoughts. That’s because much like the gravity and atmospheric resistance slowing down a rubber ball dropped from a skyscraper, as you get closer to your target, you experience less interference. And your target is the realm of light, which begat all of creation. And since we are all one, you are part of the entity that created it! You are that creative being you’ve been praying to! You can literally be the change you want to see in your life and in the world! Once you realize this and start praying to yourself, you begin to master manifesting your thoughts. This is why positive thinking, self-fulfilling prophecies, and the law of attraction, popularized in books likeThe Secret, all work. This is even why praying works. What you focus on expands, and what you resist, persists. Because either way you are thinking intensely about it.
The reason we are taught to pray, say grace before meals, be grateful, not speak gossip, be persistent, and smile our way through challenges is not so that God will reward you, but so that the energy that you’re putting out there will reflect back to you. And in order for it to do so, something that would invoke a similar reaction to the one you were thinking about, must be manifested. So by being grateful for a meal, you are attracting that energy to come back to you so that you have reason to be grateful again (manifesting another delicious meal to come into your life). The more intense the emotional attachment to a thought, the more likely it is to occur in your life. So as they say, be careful what you wish for, and what you think about.
Our life is a result of the collective thoughts we’ve had about it, just as our world is a result of the collective thoughts all of us have had about it. So if you want a life full of love, light, laughter, health, wealth, happiness, and peace, act as though you’re already there—and intensify any emotions that you’d have if your life was like that. Do so without any attachment or need (ego) and your life will manifest whatever it takes so that you continue to have those same thoughts. This is the magic behind every winning or losing streak, every addiction, every habit, lucky and unlucky people, going with the flow, and why you become more of what you already are.
As you get closer and closer to enlightenment, it becomes increasingly more interesting to see how our thoughts and actions manifest back at us. Buy a healthful meal for a homeless person and manifest the boss taking you out for lunch. Help someone with a heavy suitcase up the stairs and manifest someone steady you as you’re about to trip and fall on your face. Give money to charity and manifest getting money for your personal cause—perhaps in line with your destiny. Worried about an upcoming interview? Get a zit on your face the day it arrives. Continually holding your tongue and not speaking out against someone you disagree with? Come down with a case of laryngitis.
The greatest thing about the world we live in is that we create it all through our thoughts and actions. The most horrible thing about the world we live in is that we create it all through our thoughts and actions. The effects are up to you. All you need are some positive causes. Find the most terrifying one that you’re most passionate about and make it your goal. It’ll give you the most intense emotional energy to be duplicated and will very likely be your destiny.
May your inner spark grow to light your way,
About The Author
This article is offered under Creative Commons license. It’s okay to republish it anywhere as long as attribution bio is included and all links remain intact.
I was watching a “Contact In The Desert” video featuringDavid Wilcock and he brought up some information that is quite fascinating.
The following is an excerpt from “The Brown Notebook” which is a channeling from Walt Rogers that was done in the 1950’s.
Much of what was channeled is proving to be true in today’s society.
Man in his present state on your planet must change in order to survive. Many things will take place on this planet. Therefore man will have to change with the planet.
This solar system is moving into an area of space where the vibrations are much higher. This will cause changes in your planet’s features. It will also cause changes in your peoples.
The vibrations on the planet will become higher. Therefore man will have to raise his vibrations in order to exist on your planet. These vibrations can only be raised by the people’s thinking: thinking better thoughts of everything in the creation, more spiritual thinking, thoughts that will lift the people of Earth out of the darkness and mud they have lived in for so long.
This planet and solar system are moving into a new area of vibrations in which conditions as they are now on this planet will not survive.
Many, many planets live as we do. However, there are others that do not, because they have not come to the understanding of life of which we have. They are beginning to understand, however, some more slowly than others.
Our life is an ideal way of life. We have everything in plenty. Everyone is free. We do not try to rule one another. Our children are allowed to express themselves, not the wishes of the parents, as you call them. Each individual is ruled by none but the Creator.
We are all ruled by love, love of the Creator, love of one another, love of everything in the creation. We find this way of life very enjoyable, not the drab existence had by your people on Earth.
Wilcock talks about “The Brown Notebook” material at the 1:19:52 marker of the following video:
The photon belt and DNA
This may be related to the Photon Belt or it may just be an area of the solar system that infuses our bodies with higher energy vibrations, which may explain how numerous children have been born with additional DNA codons turned on.
An unprecedented OPPORTUNITY!
Related: Why Raising Your Energy Vibration Is So Important
According to this channeling, “vibrations can only be raised by the people’s thinking: thinking better thoughts of everything in the creation, more spiritual thinking…”
Alternate realities, parallel universes and “The Shift”As you can see, even your thoughts play a huge role as every thought contains energy that either creates a positive or negative reality, not only for you but for the world you live in.
I tend to view “The Shift” as the playing out of the highest probabilities that exist withinalternate realities and parallel universes. For example, every time someone wakes up and starts working on raising their own vibration, our current realty changes into a new and positive probability for humanity. Conversely, when we live in fear, our reality changes toward a more negative outcome.
The shift doesn’t require the entire planet to wake up… Fortunately, it doesn’t take a lot of people to change our current reality as love is much, much stronger of a vibration than fear.
The following is an excerpt from an article entitled, ” Proof That Group Meditation Can Change The World“:
Meditation has the potential to literally transform the world. In 1978, what is known as the “Maharishi Effect” took place when a group of 7000 individuals over the course of 3 weeks were meditating in hopes of positively effecting the surrounding city. They were able to literally transform the collective energy of the city which reduced global crime rates, violence, and casualties during the times of their meditation by an average of 16%. Suicide rates and automobile accidents also were reduced with all variables accounted for. In fact, there was a 72% reduction in terrorist activity during the times at which this group was meditation.
Humanity will have to change with the planet
This doesn’t necessarily mean that you need to live the life of a saint. According to Wilcock, you only need to be51% of positive vibration to make the shift.
The material presented corroborates with many other sources, such as Dolores Cannon and how she sees the “New Earth”. EVERY thought is playing a huge role in determining our present individual and global realities. In the end, we all will move forward but some may have to wait another 26,000 years for this opportunity to present itself again.
The BIG payoff
Based on Wilcock’s information:
For those who do not make the shift, this is a wonderful opportunity to learn more of life’s 3rd dimensional lessons in order to make the soul complete.
For those who make the shift, your work will pay of in ways that are unimaginable!
When you can just be, and, of course, you can, then you will not know tenseness, anxiety, fear. No longer will they overtake Being. When you can just be, you just are. Being, which is pure consciousness, isn’t under the rule of world propensities. And you are Being. You are under no rule but the rule of love.
It is in the world that tenseness exists. Where could tension exist but in the world? Certainly not in Heaven. Tension is not the purpose of your being.
Be innocent, you have been told. Innocence is Pure Being. Innocence doesn’t look for something. Innocence sees with clear sight, not sight trammeled with fear and demands.
Oh, to be innocent again! Everything has a shine to it, and, you are shining. Your eyes shine. You are the light of God.
Innocent, you are not wrapped up in the past. You don’t look back, and you don’t predict the past to repeat itself, nor do you predict the future as if it were something lying on a shelf that you are to pick up. Innocent, you have let go of the past. You have let the past withdraw its armies. Innocent, you are in green pastures. All is new, or it is new again. Innocent-eyed, you see with the bright light that you are, and you rise in love.
Do not aspire to be blasé, sophisticated, or world smart. You have no idea what innocence can do. Innocence is not a fool. Innocence is like flowing water. Cleverness often creates that which you are clever about. Innocence is Truth. The heart is innocent. The clever mind is calculating. Of course, calculation is what the mind does. The mind estimates, surmises, figures out, is on top of, and, therefore, may compress that which it is on top of. Let not your mind compress your heart.
Clever isn’t desirable. Innocence is. Why do you like babies and baby animals so much? They are innocent and delightful. Be wide-eyed, beloveds.
Why is it that you need acquaintance with Me? You need Me because you need your very Self, and I am your very Self. Attention on Me is attention on Greatness. Attention on Me is not confined to details or outcomes. I am what you are, and this matters. Be innocent and not so adamant about all the temporariness you are adamant about. Attention on what is lasting serves you, serves all.
It is not a chore to put attention on love and givingness and God. I am far more than something you study. Study with the heart, beloveds, and allow your heart the sunshine. Follow your heart to where it takes you. It can only take you to Me which is the core of you. We are One.
Come on vacation with Me, vacation from worry and doubt and debt and all the numerous world matters that the human mind occupies itself with.
Worry not. All is well. And, if in world terms, all is not well, come closer to Me and your own light. Your heart will no longer rise and fall and drop into a cavern of concern where it runs around and forgets its purpose as if it were lost.
No, your heart is to rise and rise, closer to Me, closer to love and peace. Closer to Me, what can your attention be on but love and peace?
Attention on Me is consideration for Me. I am the content of your heart. Come closer to Me, and your heart will be content. I am a magnet of magnificent love, and you, too, the seeming you, are, in truth, the same magnet of magnificent love.
Oh, how We shall travel the world together.
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– Michael channeled by Ron Head March 27,2012 We will speak of your newfound and expanding abilities in visualization and manifestation. As you awaken, these are getting stronger and stronger. It is also that the attempts to keep them subdued are getting weaker and weaker. You do not yet, as a rule, see and understand […]