full sky planck
The full visible sky as seen by the Planck space observatory. The band running through the middle corresponds to dust in our Milky galaxy. The black dots indicate the location of the proto-cluster candidates identified by Planck and subsequently observed by the Herschel space telescope. (Photo : ESA and the Planck Collaboration)

Excerpt from natureworldnews.com

Treasure seekers have found the haul of a lifetime, but it wasn’t in some ancient temple or mysterious island. Instead, it was in the sky. Researcher using two of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) impressive space telescopes have successfully identified what they are calling a “treasure chest” of ancient galaxy clusters, which could help explain how the Universe came to be the way it is today.

That’s at least according to a study recently published (PDF) in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics, which details how cosmologists used the ESA’s Planck space observatory to identify the precursor galaxy clusters, and then poured over data from the Herschel telescope for a closer look.

“Finding so many intensely star-forming, dust galaxies in such concentrated groups was a huge ,” Hervé Dole, lead of the report from the Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale in France, said in a statement. “We think this is a missing piece of cosmological structure formation.”

So what does he mean by that? Let’s turn back to the treasure chest metaphor for this one.  While Planck was the space observatory to dig up the chest, it was the Herschel data that allowed experts to look closely at each and every gold coin (galaxy cluster) inside. they are able to learn more about each coin’s make, mint, and , its origins.

And that’s a step in better understanding the early Universe. Expects believe that it took a great deal of time after star and galaxies first sprung to life for them to assemble into large clusters. 

A summary of the 14 billion years out Universe has been in existence, as seen by the Plank space telescop. Light coming from some of the oldest parts of the Universe are just reaching the observatory now, allowing for experts to see the incredible uniformity of the early structure, compared to the chaotic beautify of star, galaxy, and cluster formation that crowd space today.
(Photo : ESA – C. Carreau) A summary of the 14 billion years out Universe has been in existence, as seen by the Plank space telescope. Light coming from some of the oldest parts of the Universe are just reaching the observatory now, allowing for experts to see the incredible uniformity of the early matter, compared to the chaotic beautify of star, galaxy, and cluster formation that crowds space today.
 
 

Once the clusters formed, their gravitational influence triggered the creation of new stars and galaxies. Dark matter – which is theorized to account for a great deal of each cluster’s mass and influence – usher along the process of creating stars. But how these large clusters were ultimately assembled and grew is still a mystery.
That’s why looking at some of the oldest ‘coins’ ever made – estimated to date back to up-to 11 billion light-years ago – could be exceptionally helpful.

“We still have a lot to learn about this new population,” Dole said in an ESA release. “Hints of these kinds of objects had been found earlier in data from Herschel and other telescopes, but the all-sky capability of Planck revealed many more candidates for us to study.”

“Even when we combined the powerful capabilities of Planck and Herschel, we were only scratching the surface of the phenomena taking place at this critical era in the history of our universe, when stars, galaxies and clusters seem to be forming simultaneously,” 
added George Helou, of the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. “That’s one of the this finding is exciting. It shows us that there is so much more to be learned.