Tag: disrupt (page 1 of 2)

Special Message From Archangel Michael ~ Energies of The Celestial Bodies, Gifts of Love Are Upon Yo

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Finding Peace ~ Ann & The Angels April 08 2017 By Ann Albers

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Sublunar Operations Update


Sublunar operations continue. Most of the plasma generators and plasma strangelet bombs on man-made satellites have been disabled, including those on the thirteen NROL-39 »octopus« satellites:

Something is beyond your reach, indeed!
This has effectively loosened the Matrix control over the surface population to the point that intel about advanced spacecraft propulsion system designs have been released both into the mainstream and the alternative media:
This intel release has additionally secured the positive future timeline for humanity and brought us one step closer to the stars. The future is bright:

Sublunar operations will now extend closer to the surface of the planet through the ionosphere and the stratosphere. 
First, they will begin to disrupt the scalar weather modification programs and mind control programs of the ionospheric heaters:



Then they will extend into the stratosphere, disabling the plasma generators and plasma strangelet bombs inside the radiosondes:
The Breakthrough is near!

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Galactic Federation of Light Wake up Call July 16 2015

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Galactic Federation of Light SaLuSa 26 June 2015

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Why Luke Skywalker’s binary sunset may be real after all






Excerpt from csmonitor.com

Researchers have found Jupiter-scale gas giants orbiting binary stars and estimate that Earth-like planets orbiting binary stars could be as numerous as rocky planets orbiting single-star systems.


For all the sci-fi charm of watching a pair of suns sink below a distant horizon on a planet in a galaxy far, far away, conventional wisdom has held that binary-star systems can't host Earth-scale rocky planets.

As the two stars orbit each other like square-dance partners swinging arm in arm, regular variations in their gravitational tug would disrupt planet formation at the relatively close distances where rocky planets tend to appear.

Not so fast, say two astrophysicists. They argue that only are Tatooine-like planets likely to be out there. They could be as numerous as rocky planets orbiting single-star systems – which is to say, there could be large number of them.

Building rocky planets in a binary system not only is possible, it's "not even that hard," says Scott Kenyon, an astrophysicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., who along with University of Utah astrophysicist Benjamin Bromley performed the calculations.
Researchers have found Jupiter-scale gas giants orbiting binary stars and have estimated that such gas giants are likely to be as common in binary systems as they are in systems with a single star.
"If that's true, then Earth-like planets around binaries are just as common as Earth-like planets around single stars," Dr. Kenyon says. "If they're not common, that tells you something about how they form or how they interact with the star over billions of years."

The modeling study grew out of work the two researchers were undertaking to figure out how the dwarf planet Pluto and its largest moon Charon manage to share space with four smaller moons that orbit the two larger objects. 

Pluto and Charon form a binary system that early in its history saw the two objects graze each other to generate a ring of dust that would become the additional moons.

The gravity the surrounding dust felt as Pluto and Charon swung about their shared center of mass would vary with clock-like precision.

Conventional wisdom held that this variable tug would trigger collisions at speeds too fast to allow the dust and larger chunks to merge into ever larger objects.

Kenyon and Dr. Bromley found that, in fact, the velocities would be smaller than people thought – no greater than the speeds would be around a single central object, where velocities are slow enough to allow the debris to bump gently and merge to build ever-larger objects.

They recognized that binary stars hosting planets are essentially scaled-up versions of the Pluto-Charon system. So they applied their calculations to a hypothetical binary star system with a circumstellar disk of dust and debris.

"The modest jostling in these orbits is the same modest jostling you'd get around a single star," Kenyon says, allowing rocky inner planets to form.

As for the Jupiter- or Neptune-scale planets found around binary stars, they would have formed farther out and migrated in over time, the researchers say, since there is too little material within the inner reaches of a circumstellar disk to build giant planets.

The duo's calculations imply that as more planets are discovered orbiting binary stars, a rising number of Tatooines will be among them. 

Tatooine "was science fiction," Kenyon says. But "it's not so far from science reality."

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How will the world end? From ‘demonic’ AI to nuclear war — seven scenarios that could end human race




news.nationalpost.com 


Humanity may have already created its own nemesis, Professor Stephen Hawking warned last week. The Cambridge University physicist claimed that new developments in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) mean that within a few decades, computers thousands of times more powerful than in existence today may decide to usurp their creators and effectively end humanity’s 100,000-year dominance of Earth.
This Terminator scenario is taken seriously by many scientists and technologists. Before Prof. Hawking made his remarks, Elon Musk, the genius behind the Tesla electric car and PayPal, had stated that “with artificial intelligence, we are summoning the demon,” comparing it unfavourably with nuclear war as the most potent threat to humanity’s existence.
Aside from the rise of the machines, many potential threats have been identified to our species, our civilization, even our planet. To keep you awake at night, here are seven of the most plausible.
Getty Images / ThinkStock
Getty Images / ThinkStockAn artist's depiction of an asteroid approaching Earth.
1. ASTEROID STRIKE
Our solar system is littered with billions of pieces of debris, from the size of large boulders to objects hundreds of kilometres across. We know that, from time to time, these hit the Earth. Sixty-five-million years ago, an object – possibly a comet a few times larger than the one on which the Philae probe landed last month – hit the Mexican coast and triggered a global winter that wiped out the dinosaurs. In 1908, a smaller object hit a remote part of Siberia and devastated hundreds of square kilometres of forest. Last week, 100 scientists, including Lord Rees of Ludlow, the Astronomer Royal, called for the creation of a global warning system to alert us if a killer rock is on the way.
Probability: remote in our lifetime, but one day we will be hit.
Result: there has been no strike big enough to wipe out all life on Earth – an “extinction-level event” – for at least three billion years. But a dino-killer would certainly be the end of our civilization and possibly our species.
Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.When artificial intelligence becomes self-aware, there is a chance it will look something like this scene from Terminator 3.
2. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Prof. Hawking is not worried about armies of autonomous drones taking over the world, but something more subtle – and more sinister. Some technologists believe that an event they call the Singularity is only a few decades away. This is a point at which the combined networked computing power of the world’s AI systems begins a massive, runaway increase in capability – an explosion in machine intelligence. By then, we will probably have handed over control to most of our vital systems, from food distribution networks to power plants, sewage and water treatment works, and the global banking system. The machines could bring us to our knees without a shot being fired. And we cannot simply pull the plug, because they control the power supplies.

Probability: unknown, although computing power is doubling every 18 months. We do not know if machines can be conscious or “want” to do anything, and sceptics point out that the cleverest computers in existence are currently no brighter than cockroaches.
Result: if the web wakes up and wants to sweep us aside, we may have a fight on our hands (perhaps even something similar to the man vs. machines battle in the Terminator films). But it is unlikely that the machines will want to destroy the planet – they “live” here, too.
Handout/AFP/Getty Images
Handout/AFP/Getty ImagesLaboratory technicians and physicians work on samples during research on the evolving Ebola disease in bats, at the Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases research Laboratory of the National Institute for Communicable Diseases in Pretoria on Nov. 21, 2011.
3. A GENETICALLY CREATED PLAGUE
This is possibly the most terrifying short-term threat because it is so plausible. The reason Ebola has not become a worldwide plague – and will not do so – is because it is so hard to transmit, and because it incapacitates and kills its victims so quickly. However, a modified version of the disease that can be transmitted through the air, or which allows its host to travel around for weeks, symptom-free, could kill many millions. It is unknown whether any terror group has the knowledge or facilities to do something like this, but it is chilling to realize that the main reason we understand Ebola so well is that its potential to be weaponized was quickly realized by defence experts.
Probability: someone will probably try it one day.
Result: potentially catastrophic. “Ordinary” infectious diseases such as avian-flu strains have the capability to wipe out hundreds of millions of people.
AP Photo/U.S. Army via Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum
AP Photo/U.S. Army via Hiroshima Peace Memorial MuseumA mushroom cloud billows about one hour after a nuclear bomb was detonated above Hiroshima, Japan Aug. 6, 1945.
4. NUCLEAR WAR
This is still the most plausible “doomsday” scenario. Despite arms-limitations treaties, there are more than 15,000 nuclear warheads and bombs in existence – many more, in theory, than would be required to kill every human on Earth. Even a small nuclear war has the potential to cause widespread devastation. In 2011, a study by NASA scientists concluded that a limited atomic war between India and Pakistan involving just 100 Hiroshima-sized detonations would throw enough dust into the air to cause temperatures to drop more than 1.2C globally for a decade.
Probability: high. Nine states have nuclear weapons, and more want to join the club. The nuclear wannabes are not paragons of democracy.
Result: it is unlikely that even a global nuclear war between Russia and NATO would wipe us all out, but it would kill billions and wreck the world economy for a century. A regional war, we now know, could have effects far beyond the borders of the conflict.
CERN)/MCT
CERN)/MCTThis is one of the huge particle detectors in the Large Hadron Collider, a 17 mile-long tunnel under the French-Swiss border. Scientists are searching for evidence of what happened right after- and perhaps before- the Big Bang.
5. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR DISASTER
Before the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the massive machine at CERN in Switzerland that detected the Higgs boson a couple of years ago, was switched on, there was a legal challenge from a German scientist called Otto Rossler, who claimed the atom-smasher could theoretically create a small black hole by mistake – which would then go on to eat the Earth.
The claim was absurd: the collisions in the LHC are far less energetic than those caused naturally by cosmic rays hitting the planet. But it is possible that, one day, a souped-up version of the LHC could create something that destroys the Earth – or even the universe – at the speed of light.
Probability: very low indeed.
Result: potentially devastating, but don’t bother cancelling the house insurance just yet.
AP Photo/Oculus Rift/Fox
AP Photo/Oculus Rift/FoxThis photo shows a scene fromX-Men: Days of Future Past virtual reality experience. Oxford University philosopher Nick Bostrom has speculated that our universe may be one of countless "simulations" running in some alien computer, much like a computer game.
6. ‘GOD’ REACHES FOR THE OFF-SWITCH
Many scientists have pointed out that there is something fishy about our universe. The physical constants – the numbers governing the fundamental forces and masses of nature – seem fine-tuned to allow life of some form to exist. The great physicist Sir Fred Hoyle once wondered if the universe might be a “put-up job”.
More recently, the Oxford University philosopher Nick Bostrom has speculated that our universe may be one of countless “simulations” running in some alien computer, much like a computer game. If so, we have to hope that the beings behind our fake universe are benign – and do not reach for the off-button should we start misbehaving.
Probability: according to Professor Bostrom’s calculations, if certain assumptions are made, there is a greater than 50% chance that our universe is not real. And the increasingly puzzling absence of any evidence of alien life may be indirect evidence that the universe is not what it seems.
Result: catastrophic, if the gamers turn against us. The only consolation is the knowledge that there is absolutely nothing we can do about it.
AP Photo/Charles Rex Arbogast
AP Photo/Charles Rex ArbogastFloodwaters from the Souris River surround homes near Minot State University in Minot, N.D. on June 27, 2011. Global warming is rapidly turning America the beautiful into America the stormy and dangerous, according to the National Climate Assessment report released Tuesday, May 6, 2014.
7. CLIMATE CATASTROPHE
Almost no serious scientists now doubt that human carbon emissions are having an effect on the planet’s climate. The latest report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggested that containing temperature rises to below 2C above the pre-industrial average is now unlikely, and that we face a future three or four degrees warmer than today.
This will not literally be the end of the world – but humanity will need all the resources at its disposal to cope with such a dramatic shift. Unfortunately, the effects of climate change will really start to kick in just at the point when the human population is expected to peak – at about nine billion by the middle of this century. Millions of people, mostly poor, face losing their homes to sea-level rises (by up to a metre or more by 2100) and shifting weather patterns may disrupt agriculture dramatically.
Probability: it is now almost certain that CO2 levels will keep rising to 600 parts per billion and beyond. It is equally certain that the climate will respond accordingly.
Result: catastrophic in some places, less so in others (including northern Europe, where temperature rises will be moderated by the Atlantic). The good news is that, unlike with most of the disasters here, we have a chance to do something about climate change now.

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Double blast of solar storms heading to Earth raise disruption concerns



reuters.com
By Irene Klotz

CAPE CANAVERAL Fla. (Reuters) - A rare double burst of magnetically charged solar storms will hit Earth Thursday night and Friday, raising concerns that GPS signals, radio communications and power transmissions could be disrupted, officials said on Thursday.
Individually, the storms, known as coronal mass ejections, or CMEs, wouldn’t warrant special warnings, but their unusual close timing and direct path toward Earth spurred the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Space Weather Prediction Center to issue an alert.
The first CME, which burst from a magnetically disturbed region of the sun on Monday night, should reach Earth Thursday night, center director Thomas Berger told reporters on a conference call.
The same patch of solar real estate produced a second, more powerful storm about 1:45 p.m. EDT on Wednesday.“We don’t expect any unmanageable impacts to national infrastructure from these solar events at this time, but we are watching these events closely,” Berger said.
The sun currently is in the peak of its 11-year cycle, though the overall level of activity is far lower than a typical solar max.
Storms as powerful as the ones now making their way toward Earth typically occur 100 to 200 times during a solar cycle, Berger said.
“The unique thing about this event is that we’ve had two in close succession and the CMEs could possibly be interacting on their way to Earth, at the Earth’s orbit or beyond. We just don’t know that yet,” he said.
The highly energetic, magnetically charged solar particles could hit Earth’s magnetic field and disrupt some radio communications and degrade GPS signals, NOAA said.
The storms also have the potential to impact electric field power grids in the northern latitudes, which are more susceptible to geomagnetic disturbances.
Power grid operators and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) have been notified “just in case,” Berger added.
On the plus side, the storms should trigger beautiful auroral displays, visible wherever clear skies prevail along the northern tier of the United States. Aurora are caused by electrically charged solar particles hitting oxygen, nitrogen and other gases high in the atmosphere, creating curtains of light above the planet’s magnetic north and south poles.

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Douglas Dietrich on Descendants | Gaiam TV Exclusive

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Glactic Federation of Light Sheldan Nidle March-18-2014

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Galactic Federation of Light Montague Keen April-07-2013

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Reality Quaking

a message from Mother Earth/Gaia channeled by Pepper Lewis
Wednesday, 31 March, 2010

A dear friend of mine has been stricken with panic since reading a dire warning about devastating earthquakes that are due to strike California. Another friend sent me an email about the U.S. economy collapsing completely and resulting in hunger, violence, etc. Apparently, the 'prophet' dreamed that it would be so and decided to post it on Facebook. Needless to say, the predicted date passed without incident, but not before spreading fear like a wildfire. It amazes me that there are so many doomsday predictions and that people are taking them seriously. Where is our common sense?Common sense would be more common if people actually shared the senses that they have in common with one another including intuitive abilities, telepathic sequencing, intellectual (reasoning) faculties and collective consciousness. All of these are based upon humanity's natural understanding of itself. Common sense is the actual place in which all of the senses come together. This sense data is then processed and immediately made available to the individual, whose perception fulfills the next function. Individuals have different common sense based upon what their own personal and social experience has shown them. Once all of the various sensations have been categorized they are ready to be passed on to the group or collective consciousness. Currently, the term common sense refers to beliefs or propositions that most people would consider prudent and sound, without reliance on esoteric knowledge, study or research. So why do so many people take doomsday predictions seriously?

The simple truth is that humanity believes in the possibility of its own extinction. It has witnessed and even participated in the extinction of other earth life forms and has studied a variety of probable theories for the extinction of some of its own ancestors. Your holy books suggest that both natural and unnatural forces have or have had power over you, and that you must struggle to make your way in life. Scripture common to a variety of religions also tells of celestial beings that work tirelessly on your behalf, defending and upholding your will in this life and beyond. Humans are the only beings on earth who know that they will die, and you have come to expect that disease, old age or an unforeseen catastrophe will one day take you elsewhere. This being a time of unprecedented change, it is not surprising that you are searching for precautions and preparations.
The Doomsday Argument

Humanity's collective cellular memory has retained records of every event in its history, including those that might be called doomsday events. A doomsday event is a specific, plausibly verifiable or hypothetical occurrence, which has an exceptionally destructive effect on the human race. Hypothetical doomsday events include major disruptions in human civilization, extinction of human life, destruction of planet Earth and even the annihilation of the entire universe. More than 50% of you believe that at least one of these scenarios is possible, and an even greater percentage believe that such an event would likely be man-made. Doomsday scenarios can be divided into three major categories, natural occurrences, man-made scenarios and supernatural events.

Natural occurrences might include a global pandemic, a geological event, a gamma ray burst or other devastating cosmic radiance, an abrupt reorientation of Earth's axis of rotation, a drastic increase or decrease in the Sun's power output, an impact event such as a collision with a large meteoroid, asteroid or comet, a sudden change in the physical constants that govern the universe, the close approach of a black hole, severe climate change and more. A smattering of man-made events to consider include the over depletion of important and necessary planetary resources, a nuclear, chemical or biological war, a cybernetic revolt, unchecked global warming, particle collision based upon failed Hadron collider tests (or other large-scale colliders) and more. Supernatural events consist of all other possibilities that cannot be explained or included in the previous two categories, such as an act of divine retribution or purification as might be inspired by the Last Judgment or other religious circumstance.

Arguments for and against doomsday scenarios are almost as old as the earth, but rise and fall in popularity in accordance with empirical data, religious doctrine, archaeological discoveries, predictions and postulations, changes in calendar count, and spiritual or mystical beliefs. Humanity's is currently experiencing a moment of heightened sensitivity in this regard and its excitement and anxiety will continue to rise into the foreseeable future. The branch of philosophy most concerned with this phenomenon is appropriately named, Eschatology, which is the study of what is believed to be the final events in the history of the world, or the ultimate destiny of humanity, also referred to as the end of the world or the end of days. Interestingly, mystical traditions see the end of the world metaphorically, as the end of ordinary reality and the reunion with the Divine. By contrast, the ultimate destiny of humanity is taught by many traditional religions as an actual future event(s) that has been prophesied in sacred texts.

Distinctions in historical periods and measurements of time have also contributed to differences in theological significance. In mystical traditions the end of time relates to escaping confinement within a given reality. Some religions, on the other hand, whose interpretations are more literal, believe in the physical destruction of the planet and/or all living things upon it. A related and more modern belief system, apocalypticism, which includes both religious and secular followers, believes in a violent disruption and destruction of the world and in the consummation, perfection and creation of the next world. Such beliefs generally include the human race surviving in some new form, and in a new age.
The 2012 Phenomenon

Today, the 2012 phenomenon has taken center age, and for at least the next few years any challenge or mystery associated with human life on earth will in some way be attributed to the 2012 phenomenon. Basically, the 2012 phenomenon consists of a range of beliefs and proposals that suggest that one or more transformative events will occur in the year 2012, with an emphasis upon December 21st (winter solstice) as the most significant day of the year. The 2012 phenomenon is not new and has been a part of human archaeo-astronomical speculation since at least 3113 BCE, approximately measured in astronomical years. December 21st, 2012 is the last day of the fourth world in the Mayan Long Count calendar, the end of a 5,125-year cycle. Other pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures used similar calendars, and had alternate beliefs about the calendar's creation and purpose. Some of these include mythical creation dates, numerological constructions, and prophecies from extraterrestrial beings.

The Mayan calendar included calendars and almanacs that were used to determine what day it was, whether it was a civil or ceremonial (divine) day, what god ruled the day, and how well the crops might fare in a given cycle. It is important to note that the Mayan calendar, as it is called today did not originate with the Maya, but with their ancestors, the Toltec and the ones before them as well. One version of the calendar took into account not only the date, but also the influence of time upon the linear relationship with respect to the distant past and the far future. From a mythical starting point (origination), the calendar was capable of referring to, or predicting with great accuracy, the relationship of any one date to another, or to the calendar itself. That is how they arrived at December 21st as the End of the Fifth World. The Maya also kept track of lunar cycles and the cycles of other planets, most specifically that of Venus.

The Mayan culture and calendar has been a grand teacher for humanity, and a specific point of reference for spiritualists, New Age thinkers, futurists, and other students of life. The New Age interpretation of the 2012 phenomenon is strongly rooted in the Mayan culture, but divided in their beliefs. While some believe that the earth and its inhabitants (some or all) will undergo a physical and spiritual transformation that will mark the beginning of new era, others believe that the 2012 date marks the beginning of a destructive and apocalyptic time of great change in which humanity is further divided, challenged, adversely by nature and other forces, and vastly reduced in number. Both ideas continue to proliferate, producing offspring theories and conjectures that perplex, mystify and frighten logical thinkers and irrational theorists alike. Interestingly, the classic Mayan calendar does not suggest or predict impending doom or specific catastrophes of any kind. Even among modern Mayans there is little universal agreement about what, if anything, the date might mean or bring.

Attempts by academics such as astronomers and natural scientists to dispel 2012 theories and rumors have been almost completely unsuccessful. Contemporary mainstream scholars continue to reject apocalyptic forecasts, arguing that the date is largely irrelevant and that acceptable or available source material is scarce, contradictory and unsubstantiated. The intellectually elite liken fears about 2012 to those that surfaced around the year 2000, citing this reference as an adequate analysis of the phenomenon, and yet the phenomenon persists. Why?
The Adaptation Principle

Human evolution is largely based upon physical and psychological adaptation; a relativistic concept that explains collective leaps in consciousness as well as new eras or ages. Adaptation leads to changes in both belief and behavior, and assists humanity to push beyond the limits of rationality, which in turn allows humanity to solve recurrent questions about human ancestry and current problems of an environmental nature. Behaviors and emotions that are universal or at least cross-cultural tend to reflect the greatest results. Therefore, when large groups of humans begin to believe and act in new and different ways, even irregular and erratic ones, a new genetic and biological material is born, whose cognition leads to the expansion of all things, including a deeper understanding of the world(s) one lives in, the size and scope of the universe, and the individual's relationship to All That Is.

The ongoing effect of Hubble telescope's representations of the universe upon humanity is a living example of this adaptation principle. Consider for a moment how your view of the cosmos has changed. Hubble has taught humanity that extra-solar planets are quite common, and has put to rest the idea that our Sun is unusual in having planets. In fact, it would be fair to say that the earth is a relatively ordinary planet orbiting a relatively ordinary star in an ordinary galaxy, one of countless others in this universe within an even greater multi-verse that will one day merge with the omniverse. Humanity has learned that it is not simply a privileged observer of the universe. It is part of the earth's biosphere, not above it, beneath it or unique to it. This understanding is an important key to other upcoming leaps in consciousness and evolution.
Leaps in Evolution

The onset of an evolutionary leap can be a difficult and inconsistent time for humanity. It creates large gaps that humanity must contend with including some, but not all of the physical and psychological anomalies that you are currently undergoing. A marked increase in melancholy and depression is one, as is a decrease in the stability of present-day and past memory recall, physical and/or sexual orientation, a worrisome concern for one's physical surroundings, a general sense of lack of everything from wellness to physical and economic resources, a bleak or obscure outlook of the future, increased fear, anxiety, and even panic over the normal challenges of life. While these are no more than symptoms of change, they are nonetheless taxing upon the central nervous system and upsetting to the personality self.

Evolutionary leaps also spark changes in the nature and structure of reality. Reality is what you call your existence upon the earth. It consists of everything that exists in your life or happens to you. Your reality allows you to feel authentic and alive. During an evolutional leap the future of your (this) reality is possible, but not necessarily probable, because you are simultaneously exploring other time lines, dimensions and potentials for growth. When the certainty of one future is not guaranteed other futures exist as possibilities. They become real, exist in the same moment as you do and operate under the same variable laws as you do. This is a very accurate description of what you are presently undergoing, and why the sky is the limit where your uncertainties are concerned.

Those with an ability to ÒseeÓ beyond the ordinary, as well as those who channel, interpret, or otherwise divine what remains hidden or invisible to others are not exempt from the pitfalls and gaps that exist in the present moment. This includes oracles, clairvoyants, mystics, philosophers, visionaries, as well as those who interpret dreams for themselves or others, and more. In fact, it could be argued that those who would assemble under this flag are even more susceptible to reality quaking than others. A reality quake is what happens to a reality that has been overly stressed, corrupted or compromised by another force, natural or otherwise. Such influences include, but are not limited to belief systems, unique crossroads and timelines, dimensions, new discoveries and revelations. Under the effect of these new influences, the first reality can no longer exist in its present form, nor sustain or uphold the original framework from which it was created. A quake brought about by one ore more influences has now compelled a modification of the original reality in part or in whole. The original structure, which now contains less of the material from which realities are made, can never be recovered or restored; it has been forever altered.

Where do prophets and prophecies come in? They are the glue that helps to fill the cracks in the cosmic egg. They offer bridges from here to there, if there is where you want to go. Your beliefs will take you almost anywhere, but it is always best to decide that for yourself, if at all possible. Like it or not, you are now on the fast track in the discovery and development of all of your faculties. It is time to put into practice all that you have studied and learned over several millennia of time. Allow those who thunder and quake that the end is near to collapse under the weight of their own words. Be led if you like, but not misled if at all possible. The end is as near as the next beginning. It is simply a matter of turning the page with an eagerness to experience what is next. I submit to you that change is inevitable and evolution unavoidable. Surrender the obsolete, embrace the new and anticipate the next experience with an open heart and mind.

©2007 Pepper Lewis and The Peaceful Planet.  All of the information presented is for your reading and enjoyment. It can be shared in whole or in part with others who may find it of value as long as it is for personal use. In so doing, we ask that you always include the copyright notice located at the bottom of each document. This ensures our ability to make this information available to those who do not have access to the Internet. All other reprints including electronic transmissions designed for commercial use must receive permission from the author. Publications and websites interested in carrying this information as monthly columns or special features are encouraged to do so. If the material must be shortened in length, please clearly state that it is an edited version and refer the readers to the original full-length version.

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Andromeda, feels like home to me…..

Andromeda Galaxy

The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224; often referred to as the Great Andromeda Nebula in older texts, is a spiral galaxy approximately 2,500,000 light-years away in the constellation Andromeda.

It is the nearest spiral galaxy to our own, the Milky Way. As it is visible as a faint smudge on a moonless night, it is one of the farthest objects visible to the naked eye, and can be seen even from urban areas with binoculars. It is named after the princess Andromeda in Greek mythology.

Andromeda is the largest galaxy of the Local Group, which consists of the Andromeda Galaxy, the Milky Way Galaxy, the Triangulum Galaxy, and about 30 other smaller galaxies. Although the largest, Andromeda may not be the most massive, as recent findings suggest that the Milky Way contains more dark matter and may be the most massive in the grouping.

The 2006 observations by the Spitzer Space Telescope revealed that M31 contains one trillion (1012) stars, several times more than the number of stars in our own galaxy, which is estimated to be c. 200-400 billion.

While the 2006 estimates put the mass of the Milky Way to be ~80% of the mass of Andromeda, which is estimated to be 7.1 X 1011 solar masses, a 2009 study concluded that Andromeda and the Milky Way are about equal in mass.

At an apparent magnitude of 3.4, the Andromeda Galaxy is notable for being one of the brightest Messier objects, making it easily visible to the naked eye even when viewed from areas with moderate light pollution. Although it appears more than six times as wide as the full moon when photographed through a larger telescope, only the brighter central region is visible with the naked eye.

Observation History

The earliest recorded observation of the Andromeda Galaxy was in 964 CE by the Persian astronomer, Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi), who described it as a "small cloud" in his Book of Fixed Stars. Other star charts of that period have it labeled as the Little Cloud.

The first description of the object based on telescopic observation was given by Simon Marius in 1612.

Charles Messier catalogued it as object M31 in 1764 and incorrectly credited Marius as the discoverer, unaware of Al Sufi's earlier work.

In 1785, the astronomer William Herschel noted a faint reddish hue in the core region of the M31. He believed it to be the nearest of all the "great nebulae" and, based on the color and magnitude of the nebula, he incorrectly guessed that it was no more than 2,000 times the distance of Sirius.

William Huggins in 1864 observed the spectrum of M31 and noted that it differed from a gaseous nebula. The spectra of M31 displayed a continuum of frequencies, superimposed with dark absorption lines that help identify the chemical composition of an object. The Andromeda nebula was very similar to the spectra of individual stars, and from this it was deduced that M31 had a stellar nature.

In 1885, a supernova (known as "S Andromedae") was seen in M31, the first and so far only one observed in that galaxy. At the time M31 was considered to be a nearby object, so the cause was thought to be a much less luminous and unrelated event called a nova, and was named accordingly "Nova 1885".

The first photographs of M31 were taken in 1887 by Isaac Roberts from his private observatory in Sussex, England. The long-duration exposure allowed the spiral structure of the galaxy to be seen for the first time. However, at the time this object was commonly believed to be a nebula within our galaxy, and Roberts mistakenly believed that M31 and similar spiral nebulae were actually solar systems being formed, with the satellites nascent planets.

The radial velocity of this object with respect to our solar system was measured in 1912 by Vesto Slipher at the Lowell Observatory, using spectroscopy. The result was the largest velocity recorded at that time, at 300 kilometres per second (190 mi/s), moving in the direction of the Sun.

Island Universe

In 1917, Heber Curtis observed a nova within M31. Searching the photographic record, 11 more novae were discovered. Curtis noticed that these novae were, on average, 10 magnitudes fainter than those that occurred within our Galaxy. As a result he was able to come up with a distance estimate of 500,000 light-years (3.2X1010 AU). He became a proponent of the so-called "island universes" hypothesis, which held that spiral nebulae were actually independent galaxies.

In 1920 the Great Debate between Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis took place, concerning the nature of the Milky Way, spiral nebulae, and the dimensions of the universe. To support his claim that Great Andromeda Nebula (M31) was an external galaxy, Curtis also noted the appearance of dark lanes resembling the dust clouds in our own Galaxy, as well as the significant Doppler shift.

In 1922 Ernst Opik presented a very elegant and simple astrophysical method to estimate the distance of M31, his result (450 kpc (1,500 kly)) put Andromeda Nebula far outside our Galaxy.

Edwin Hubble settled the debate in 1925 when he identified extragalactic Cepheid variable stars for the first time on astronomical photos of M31. These were made using the 2.5 metres (98 in) Hooker telescope, and they enabled the distance of Great Andromeda Nebula to be determined. His measurement demonstrated conclusively that this feature was not a cluster of stars and gas within our Galaxy, but an entirely separate galaxy located a significant distance from our own.

Andromeda plays an important role in galactic studies, since it is the nearest spiral galaxy (although not the nearest galaxy).

In 1943, Walter Baade was the first person to resolve stars in the central region of the Andromeda Galaxy. Based on his observations of this galaxy, he was able to discern two distinct populations of stars based on their metallicity, naming the young, high velocity stars in the disk Type I and the older, red stars in the bulge Type II. This nomenclature was subsequently adopted for stars within the Milky Way, and elsewhere. (The existence of two distinct populations had been noted earlier by Jan Oort.) Dr. Baade also discovered that there were two types of Cepheid variables, which resulted in a doubling of the distance estimate to M31, as well as the remainder of the Universe.

Radio emission from the Andromeda Galaxy was first detected by Grote Reber in 1940. The first radio maps of the galaxy were made in the 1950s by John Baldwin and collaborators at the Cambridge Radio Astronomy Group. The core of the Andromeda Galaxy is called 2C 56 in the 2C radio astronomy catalogue.

In 2009, the first planet may have been discovered in the Andromeda Galaxy. This candidate was detected using a technique called microlensing, which is caused by the deflection of light by a massive object.

Structure

Based on its appearance in visible light, the Andromeda galaxy is classified as an SA(s)b galaxy in the de Vaucouleurs-Sandage extended classification system of spiral galaxies. However, data from the 2MASS survey showed that the bulge of M31 has a box-like appearance, which implies that the galaxy is actually a barred galaxy with the bar viewed almost directly along its long axis.

In 2005, astronomers used the Keck telescopes to show that the tenuous sprinkle of stars extending outward from the galaxy is actually part of the main disk itself. This means that the spiral disk of stars in Andromeda is three times larger in diameter than previously estimated. This constitutes evidence that there is a vast, extended stellar disk that makes the galaxy more than 220,000 light-years (67,000 pc) in diameter. Previously, estimates of Andromeda's size ranged from 70,000 to 120,000 light-years (21,000 to 37,000 pc) across.

The galaxy is inclined an estimated 77° relative to the Earth (where an angle of 90° would be viewed directly from the side). Analysis of the cross-sectional shape of the galaxy appears to demonstrate a pronounced, S-shaped warp, rather than just a flat disk. A possible cause of such a warp could be gravitational interaction with the satellite galaxies near M31. The galaxy M33 could be responsible for some warp in M31's arms, though more precise distances and radial velocities are required.

Spectroscopic studies have provided detailed measurements of the rotational velocity of M31 at various radii from the core. In the vicinity of the core, the rotational velocity climbs to a peak of 225 kilometres per second (140 mi/s) at a radius of 1,300 light-years (82,000,000 AU) light-years, then descends to a minimum at 7,000 light-years (440,000,000 AU) where the rotation velocity may be as low as 50 kilometres per second (31 mi/s).

Thereafter the velocity steadily climbs again out to a radius of 33,000 light-years (2.1x109 AU), where it reaches a peak of 250 kilometres per second (160 mi/s). The velocities slowly decline beyond that distance, dropping to around 200 kilometres per second (120 mi/s) at 80,000 light-years (5.1x109 AU). These velocity measurements imply a concentrated mass of about 6 x 109 M in the nucleus. The total mass of the galaxy increases linearly out to 45,000 light-years (2.8 x109 AU), then more slowly beyond that radius.

The spiral arms of Andromeda are outlined by a series of H II regions that Baade described as resembling "beads on a string". They appear to be tightly wound, although they are more widely spaced than in our galaxy.

Rectified images of the galaxy show a fairly normal spiral galaxy with the arms wound up in a clockwise direction. There are two continuous trailing arms that are separated from each other by a minimum of about 13,000 light-years (8.2E+8 AU). These can be followed outward from a distance of roughly 1,600 light-years (100,000,000 AU) from the core. The most likely cause of the spiral pattern is thought to be interaction with M32. This can be seen by the displacement of the neutral hydrogen clouds from the stars.

In 1998, images from the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory demonstrated that the overall form of the Andromeda galaxy may be transitioning into a ring galaxy. The gas and dust within Andromeda is generally formed into several overlapping rings, with a particularly prominent ring formed at a radius of 32,000 light-years (2.0x109 AU) from the core. This ring is hidden from visible light images of the galaxy because it is composed primarily of cold dust.

Close examination of the inner region of Andromeda showed a smaller dust ring that is believed to have been caused by the interaction with M32 more than 200 million years ago. Simulations show that the smaller galaxy passed through the disk of Andromeda along the latter's polar axis. This collision stripped more than half the mass from the smaller M32 and created the ring structures in Andromeda.

Studies of the extended halo of M31 show that it is roughly comparable to that of the Milky Way, with stars in the halo being generally "metal-poor", and increasingly so with greater distance. This evidence indicates that the two galaxies have followed similar evolutionary paths. They are likely to have accreted and assimilated about 1-200 low-mass galaxies during the past 12 billion years. The stars in the extended halos of M31 and the Milky Way may extend nearly one third the distance separating the two galaxies.

Nucleus

M31 is known to harbor a dense and compact star cluster at its very center. In a large telescope it creates a visual impression of a star embedded in the more diffuse surrounding bulge. The luminosity of the nucleus is in excess of the most luminous globular clusters.

In 1991 Tod R. Lauer used WFPC, then on board the Hubble Space Telescope, to image Andromeda's inner nucleus. The nucleus consists of two concentrations separated by 1.5 parsecs (4.9 ly). The brighter concentration, designated as P1, is offset from the center of the galaxy. The dimmer concentration, P2, falls at the true center of the galaxy and contains a 3-5x107 M black hole.

Scott Tremaine has proposed that the observed double nucleus could be explained if P1 is the projection of a disk of stars in an eccentric orbit around the central black hole. The eccentricity is such that stars linger at the orbital apocenter, creating a concentration of stars. P2 also contains a compact disk of hot, spectral class A stars. The A stars are not evident in redder filters, but in blue and ultraviolet light they dominate the nucleus, causing P2 to appear more prominent than P1.

While at the initial time of its discovery it was hypothesized that the brighter portion of the double nucleus was the remnant of a small galaxy "cannibalized" by Andromeda, this is no longer considered to be a viable explanation. The primary reason is that such a nucleus would have an exceedingly short lifetime due to tidal disruption by the central black hole. While this could be partially resolved if P1 had its own black hole to stabilize it, the distribution of stars in P1 does not suggest that there is a black hole at its center.

Artist's concept of Andromeda galaxy core showing a view across a

mysterious disk of young, blue stars encircling a supermassive black hole.

Discrete Sources

Multiple X-ray sources have been detected in the Andromeda Galaxy, using observations from the ESA's XMM-Newton orbiting observatory. Robin Barnard et al. hypothesized that these are candidate black holes or neutron stars, which are heating incoming gas to millions of kelvins and emitting X-rays. The spectrum of the neutron stars is the same as the hypothesized black holes, but can be distinguished by their masses.

There are approximately 460 globular clusters associated with the Andromeda galaxy. The most massive of these clusters, identified as Mayall II, nicknamed Globular One, has a greater luminosity than any other known globular cluster in the local group of galaxies.

It contains several million stars, and is about twice as luminous as Omega Centauri, the brightest known globular cluster in the Milky Way. Globular One (or G1) has several stellar populations and a structure too massive for an ordinary globular. As a result, some consider G1 to be the remnant core of a dwarf galaxy that was consumed by M31 in the distant past. The globular with the greatest apparent brightness is G76 which is located in the south-west arm's eastern half.

In 2005, astronomers discovered a completely new type of star cluster in M31. The new-found clusters contain hundreds of thousands of stars, a similar number of stars that can be found in globular clusters. What distinguishes them from the globular clusters is that they are much larger ­ several hundred light-years across ­ and hundreds of times less dense. The distances between the stars are, therefore, much greater within the newly discovered extended clusters.

Future Collision of the Milky Way with Andromeda

The Andromeda Galaxy is approaching the Sun at about 100 to 140 kilometres per second (62 to 87 mi/s),[56] so it is one of the few blue shifted galaxies. The Andromeda Galaxy and the Milky Way are thus expected to collide in perhaps 2.5 billion years, although the details are uncertain since Andromeda's tangential velocity with respect to the Milky Way is only known to within about a factor of two.

A likely outcome of the collision is that the galaxies will merge to form a giant elliptical galaxy. Such events are frequent among the galaxies in galaxy groups. The fate of the Earth and the Solar System in the event of a collision are presently unknown. If the galaxies do not merge, there is a small chance that the Solar System could be ejected from the Milky Way or join Andromeda.

Andromeda's Satellite Galaxies  Wikipedia
Like the Milky Way, Andromeda Galaxy has satellite galaxies, consisting of 14 known dwarf galaxies.

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