Tag: local group

Disclosure Process

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MAKE THIS VIRAL! WEEKLY ASCENSION MEDITATION

  It is time to take action again! It is time to take the destiny of our world in our own hands! We all agree that the process of planetary liberation is taking too long. Here is our chance to collectively speed up the process. Therefore we are up...

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MAKE THIS VIRAL! WEEKLY ASCENSION MEDITATION

  It is time to take action again! It is time to take the destiny of our world in our own hands! We all agree that the process of planetary liberation is taking too long. Here is our chance to collectively speed up the process. Therefore we are up...

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MAKE THIS VIRAL! FREE THE COLONIES!

FREE THE COLONIES! MAY 30TH, 2015 It is time to take action again! It is time to take the destiny of our world and the Solar System in our own hands! Therefore we will meet in groups large and small, as individuals and couples, on May 30th this year. ...

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Earth’s address within a massive supercluster of 100,000 galaxies ~ Video





Excerpt from cnet.com


Astronomers have mapped the Milky Way's position to the outskirts of a supercluster of galaxies, newly dubbed Laniakea, meaning "Immense Heaven".

The distribution of galaxies throughout the universe is not more-or-less even; instead, galaxies tend to cluster together, bound together by the pull of each other's gravity. These groups can be a variety of sizes. The Milky Way Galaxy, for instance, is part of what is called the Local Group, which contains upwards of 54 galaxies, covering a diameter of 10 megalight-years (10 million light-years).

Click to zoom

But this Local Group is just a small part of a much, much bigger structure, which researchers at the University of Hawai'i Mānoa have now mapped in detail. Coming in at over 100,000 galaxies, the massive supercluster has been given the name Laniakea -- "immense heaven" in Hawaiian.
The new 3D map was created by examining the positions and movements of the 8000 closest galaxies to the Milky Way. After calculating which galaxies were being pulled away from us and which were being pulled towards us -- accounting for the universe's expansion -- the team, led by astronomer R. Brent Tully, was able to map the paths of galactic migration -- and define the boundaries of Laniakea.

Traditionally, the borders of galactic superclusters have been difficult to map, but studying the gravitational force acting on our neighbouring galaxies has provided some important clues. All objects inside Laniakea are being slowly but surely drawn to a single point -- a force known as the Great Attractor, a gravitational anomaly with a mass tens of thousands of times the mass of the Milky Way.

Everything that is being pulled towards the Great Attractor is part of Laniakea -- although it's possible that Laniakea itself might in turn be part of a structure that is larger still.

"We probably need to measure to another factor of three in distance to explain our local motion," Tully said. "We might find that we have to come up with another name for something larger than we're a part of -- we're entertaining that as a real possibility."

The full paper, "The Laniakea supercluster of galaxies", can be read online in the journal Nature.

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Meet the Milky Way’s New Neighbor KKs3

Excerpt from  natureworldnews.comMeet the Milky Way's new neighbor, KKs3, a dwarf galaxy located almost seven million light-years away, new research describes.Kks3 is a "dwarf spheroidal" - or dSph galaxy - unlike our own Milky Way, and despite i...

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Our Milky Way strips nearby galaxies of star-forming hydrogen


 Artist's impression of the Milky Way. Its hot halo appears to be stripping away the star-forming atomic hydrogen from its companion dwarf spheroidal galaxies.  Image credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF
Artist’s impression of the Milky Way. Its hot halo appears to be stripping away the star-forming atomic hydrogen from its companion dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Image credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF

Excerpt from
earthsky.org

Astronomers have discovered that our nearest galactic neighbors are devoid of star-forming gas, and that our Milky Way is to blame.

New observations by large radio telescopes reveal that within a well-defined boundary around our galaxy, dwarf galaxies are completely devoid of hydrogen gas. Beyond this point, dwarf galaxies are teeming with star-forming material. 

The Milky Way galaxy is actually the largest member of a compact clutch of galaxies that are bound together by gravity. Swarming around our home galaxy is a menagerie of smaller dwarf galaxies, the smallest of which are the relatively nearby dwarf spheroidals, which may be the leftover building blocks of galaxy formation.

Further out are a number of similarly sized and slightly misshaped dwarf irregular galaxies, which are not gravitationally bound to the Milky Way and may be relative newcomers to our galactic neighborhood.

Kristine Spekkens is an assistant professor at the Royal Military College of Canada and lead author on a paper published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. She said:
"Astronomers wondered if, after billions of years of interaction, the nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies have all the same star-forming ‘stuff’ that we find in more distant dwarf galaxies."

Previous studies have shown that the more distant dwarf irregular galaxies have large reservoirs of neutral hydrogen gas, the fuel for star formation. These past observations, however, were not sensitive enough to rule out the presence of this gas in the smallest dwarf spheroidal galaxies. 

Spekkens said:
"What we found is that there is a clear break, a point near our home galaxy where dwarf galaxies are completely devoid of any traces of neutral atomic hydrogen."
 Bottom line: New observations by large radio telescopes reveal that within a well-defined boundary around our galaxy, dwarf galaxies are completely devoid of star-making hydrogen gas. Astronomers say our Milky Way is to blame.

Known Milky Way satellite galaxies.  Click here for more about this diagram.
Neighboring galaxies to our own Milky Way (Descriptions below)
 

NAME DISTANCE (kpc) DISCOVERY PAPER
Canes Major 7.2Martin et al. 2004, A dwarf galaxy remnant in Canis Major: the fossil of an in-plane accretion on to the Milky Way
Segue 317 Belokurov et al. 2010, Big Fish, Little Fish: Two New Ultra-Faint Satellites of the Milky Way
Segue 123 Belokurov et al. 2007, Cats and Dogs, Hair and A Hero: A Quintet of New Milky Way Companions
Sagittarius24Ibata, Gilmore & Irwin, 1994, A dwarf satellite galaxy in Sagittarius 1995, Sagittarius: the nearest dwarf galaxy
Segue 234.7 Belokurov et al. 2009, The discovery of Segue 2: a prototype of the population of satellitesof satellites
Bootes II 43 Walsh, Jerjen & Willman, 2007, A Pair of Bootes: A New Milky Way Satellite
Coma 44 Belokurov et al. 2007, Cats and Dogs, Hair and A Hero: A Quintet of New Milky Way Companions
Willman 1 (SDSSJ1049+5103) 45Willman et al. 2005, A New Milky Way Companion: Unusual Globular Cluster or Extreme Dwarf Satellite?
Bootes III 46Grillmair 2009, Four New Stellar Debris Streams in the Galactic Halo
LMC 50.8-
SMC 59.7-
Bootes 60 Belokurov et al. 2006, A Faint New Milky Way Satellite in Bootes
Ursa Minor 66A.G. Wilson of the Lowell Observatory in 1955, Sculptor-Type Systems in the Local Group of Galaxies
Sculptor (Scl) 79discovered in 1938 by Harlow Shapley, A Stellar System of a New Type
Draco 82 A.G. Wilson of the Lowell Observatory in 1955, Sculptor-Type Systems in the Local Group of Galaxies
Sextans 89 Mike Irwin, M.T. Bridgeland, P.S. Bunclark and R.G. McMahon, 1990 A new satellite galaxy of the Milky Way in the constellation of Sextans
Ursa Major (UMa) 100Willman et al. 2005, A New Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy in Ursa Major
Carina 103Cannon, R. D., Hawarden, T. G., & Tritton, S. B., 1977, A new Sculptor-type dwarf elliptical galaxy in Carina
Hercules 140 Belokurov et al. 2007, Cats and Dogs, Hair and A Hero: A Quintet of New Milky Way Companions
Fornax 140discovered in 1938 by Harlow Shapley, described in "Two Stellar Systems of a New Kind", Nature, Vol. 142, p. 715
Canes Venatici II 150 Sakamoto & Hasegawa 2006, Discovery of a Faint Old Stellar System at 150 kpc
Leo IV 160 Belokurov et al. 2007, Cats and Dogs, Hair and A Hero: A Quintet of New Milky Way Companions
Pisces II 182 Belokurov et al. 2010, Big Fish, Little Fish: Two New Ultra-Faint Satellites of The Milky Way
Leo II (Leo B) 208 Robert G. Harrington and Albert George Wilson, 1950, Two New Stellar Systems in Leo
Canes Venatici 220Zucker et al. 2006 A New Milky Way Dwarf Satellite in Canes Venatici
Leo I 254 Robert G. Harrington and Albert George Wilson, 1950, Two New Stellar Systems in Leo

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Hubble Finds Jets and Explosions in Galaxy 13 Million Light Years Away

Hubble Finds Jets and Explosions in NGC 7793. Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA
This new image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows NGC 7793, a spiral galaxy in the constellation of Sculptor some 13 million light-years away from Earth. NGC 7793 is one of the brightest galaxies in the Sculptor Group, one of the closest groups of galaxies to the Local Group — the group of galaxies containing our galaxy, the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds.
The image shows NGC 7793’s spiral arms and small central bulge.
Unlike some other spirals, NGC 7793 doesn’t have a very pronounced spiral structure, and its shape is further muddled by the mottled pattern of dark dust that stretches across the frame. The occasional burst of bright pink can be seen in the galaxy, highlighting stellar nurseries containing newly-forming baby stars.
Although it may look serene and beautiful from our perspective, this galaxy is actually a very dramatic and violent place. Astronomers have discovered a powerful micro-quasar within NGC 7793 — a system containing a black hole actively feeding on material from a companion star. A micro-quasar is an object that has some of the properties of quasars in miniature. While many full-sized quasars are known at the cores of other galaxies, it is unusual to find a quasar in a galaxy’s disk rather than at its center.
Micro-quasars are almost like scale models — they allow astronomers to study quasars in detail. As material falls inwards towards this black hole, it creates a swirling disk around it. Some of the infalling gas is propelled violently outwards at extremely high speeds, creating jets streaking out into space in opposite directions. In the case of NGC 7793, these jets are incredibly powerful, and are in the process of creating an expanding bubble of hot gas some 1,000 light-years across.

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‘We finally found it’: Scientists get first look at ‘monster’ galaxy’s formation




theweek.com

Yale astronomers have at last gotten a first look at the formation of "the universe's monster galaxies," Phys.org reports, and the results are fascinating.

The research, which used data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, and the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii, was published Wednesday in the journal Nature. It marks the first time astronomers have seen the earliest stages of a massive galaxy's formation.

The Keck II telescope's Near Infrared Spectograph allowed the astronomers to watch the galaxy — officially called GOODS-N-774 but nicknamed "Sparky" — produce massive amounts of stars. Witnessing this formation gave them new insight into how ancient galaxies may have formed 11 billion years ago — only 3 billion years after the Big Bang.

The scientists found that Sparky's formation is unique to the early universe that it developed in: its rapid gas movement was often violent, and it produced as many as 300 stars per year — an astounding amount of stars, especially considering its relatively tiny size (it measured roughly 6,000 light-years across). The Milky Way, by contrast, only produces roughly 10 stars annually, but spans 100,000 light-years.

"I think our discovery settles the question of whether this mode of building galaxies actually happened or not," said Pieter van Dokkum, one of the Yale astronomers. "The question now is, 'How often did this occur?' We suspect there are other galaxies like this that are even fainter in near-infrared wavelengths. We had been searching for this galaxy for years, and it's very exciting that we finally found it." --Meghan DeMaria

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This image shows 2 galaxies colliding 7 billion years ago ~ Video


The galaxy H-ATLAS J142935.3-002836
vox.com

That grainy image above is one of the oldest and most distant things we've ever seen as a species.

On Tuesday, the European South Observatory published this image of a distant celestial object called H-ATLAS J142935.3-002836 — the collision of two disc-shaped galaxies that occurred about seven billion years ago, when the universe was only half as old as it is now. The image is the result of several different views, produced by both ground-based and space telescopes at a number of different wavelengths.

Because light takes time to travel, when we look extremely far away, we're actually seeing events that occurred some time ago. And this object is so far that the light it produced took roughly seven billion years to get here.

We're only able to see it at all because of a neat trick called gravitational lensing. Basically, when a much closer galaxy is aligned directly in between us and the distant one, the light coming from the far galaxy is actually bent by the gravity of near galaxy as it comes towards us. This makes the far galaxy much brighter — in this case, bright enough for us to see it.

To get a better idea of just how far away this thing is — and how gravitational lensing works — watch the ESO video below.

Click to zoom

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New Milky Way Maps May Solve Stardust Mystery

Astronomers have created some astonishing new maps of the dusty material between the stars of our Milky Way galaxy. The findings may just bring researchers one step closer to cracking a stardust puzzle that has stumped scientists for nearly a centu...

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