Tag: neanderthal

What our ancient ancestors found beautiful 50,000 years ago






Excerpt from news.discovery.com

The geode (above), described in the latest issue of Comptes Rendus Palevol, was found in the Cioarei-Boroşteni Cave, Romania. A Neanderthal had painted it with ochre.

"The Neanderthal man must have certainly attached an aesthetic importance to it, while its having been painted with ochre was an addition meant to confer symbolic value," said Marin Cârciumaru of Valahia University and colleagues.

The researchers also noted that "the geode was undoubtedly introduced into the cave by the Neanderthal," since they ruled out that it could have originated in the cave itself.

Was the geode used in rituals, or was it just a treasured object of beauty? Its precise meaning to the Neanderthal remains a mystery for now.




Based on archaeological finds, necklaces made out of Spondylus (a spiky, colorful mollusk) were all the rage. (Above)

This specimen has more of a reddish hue, but Michel Louis Séfériadès of CNRS notes that most are "a highly colored, very attractive purplish crimson." Séfériadès added that the shells were valued, early trade items and that they are now "found in the archaeological remains of settlements and cemeteries, in graves, and as isolated finds."

Some of the shells were made into jewelry, including necklaces and bracelets.

 

We sing about "five gold rings," but the rings would more likely have been ivory back in the day -- as in around 50,000 years ago, before ivory-producing animals were mostly hunted to extinction.
Early humans in northern regions, for example, made rings out of mammoth ivory. A Neanderthal site at Grotte du Renne, France yielded a carefully crafted ivory ring (above), as well as grooved and perforated "personal ornaments," according to archaeologist Paul Mellars of Cambridge University.



Charcoal (shown avove), ochre and other materials were applied to the face by early Homo sapiens as well as by other human subspecies. 

The ochre, used to paint the geode, mentioned earlier, was also used as makeup, hair dye, paint (to create rock and cave art), as well as to color garments.


Early humans used combs made out of shells and fish bones to both comb their hair and as personal decoration. (Above)

The shell from the Venus comb murex, a large predatory sea snail, is just one species that seems perfect for this purpose. Gibraltar Museum researchers Clive Finlayson and Kimberley Brown also found evidence that Neanderthals valued large, elaborate feathers, which the scientists suspect were worn by the individuals. 

Nearly all early cultures had coveted figurines holding probable symbolic value. Some of the earliest carved objects are known as "Venus" figurines. They present women with exaggerated sexual features. Their exact meaning remains unclear. (Above)

Pendants made of animal teeth were common and probably served many different functions, such as showing the hunter's success, offering symbolic protection, and just as fashion. 

Some of the funkiest-looking teeth were made into worn objects.
Animal teeth could be on a gift list dated to 540,000 years ago, and possibly earlier, as a recent study in the journal Nature found that a population of Homo erectus at Java, Indonesia, was collecting shark teeth and using them as tools and possibly as ornamentation.

 

The world's oldest known musical instrument is a bone flute (Above). While the earliest excavated flute dates to about 42,000 years ago, comparable flutes were probably made much earlier.

Flutes, like most of the items on this list, were not essential to survival, but yet they somehow contributed to the prehistoric peoples' quality of life.

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Neanderthals Turned Eagle Talons Into ‘Stunning’ Jewelry


Image: Talons
The eight eagle talons from Krapina were arranged with an eagle phalanx that was also found at the site.


Excerpt from nbcnews.com

Long before they shared the landscape with modern humans, Neanderthals in Europe developed a sharp sense of style, wearing eagle claws as jewelry, new evidence suggests. 

Researchers identified eight talons from white-tailed eagles — including four that had distinct notches and cut marks — from a 130,000-year-old Neanderthal cave in Croatia. They suspect the claws were once strung together as part of a necklace or bracelet.


"It really is absolutely stunning," study author David Frayer, an anthropology professor at the University of Kansas, told LiveScience. "It fits in with this general picture that's emerging that Neanderthals were much more modern in their behavior." 
The talons were first excavated more than 100 years ago at a famous sandstone rock-shelter site called Krapina in Croatia. 
There, archaeologists found more than 900 Neanderthal bones dating back to a relatively warm, interglacial period about 120,000 to 130,000 years ago. They also found Mousterian stone tools (a telltale sign of Neanderthal occupation), a hearth, and the bones of rhinos and cave bears — but no signs of modern human occupation. Homo sapiens didn't spread into Europe until about 40,000 years ago. 
The eagle talons were all found in the same archaeological layer, Frayer said, and they had been studied a few times before. But no one noticed the cut marks until last year, when Davorka Radovcic, curator of the Croatian Natural History Museum, was reassessing some of the Krapina objects in the collection. 
The researchers don't know exactly how the talons would have been assembled into jewelry. But Frayer said some facets on the claws look quite polished — perhaps made smooth from being wrapped in some kind of fiber, or from rubbing against the surface of the other talons. There were also nicks in three of the talons that wouldn't have been created during an eagle's life, Frayer said.
The findings were published March 11 in the journal PLOS ONE.

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Protection


Although a large part of the scalar plasma grid has been removed after the opening of the IS:IS portal, a large part still remains. Breakthrough phase does not mean only rainbows and pretty comets, we are in the middle of occult war between forces of Light and forces of darkness.



 
Therefore it is of utmost importance for the people to be aware of the existence and the influence of the scalar plasma grid and other energy weapons that the Cabal under the guidance of Chimera group uses to suppress human consciousness and to prevent the arrival of Light. Here is a relatively good article about it:
The Event will NOT happen until the scalar plasma grid is taken care of.
Many Lightworkers and Lightwarriors are primary targets of directed energy weapons because they are the primary security threat to the current slavery prison planet matrix and its handlers.
The first guideline for protection for targeted individuals is to try to maintain the state of balance and harmony amidst all daily activities. That means learning to master the skills of time and priorities management and learning when to say yes and when to say no, and to remove all toxic elements, situations and people out of your lives. It is also good to find some quiet time each day to spend in nature and/or in meditation to reconnect with your higher self.



Dragon sources have communicated an effective protection meditation protocol. It is recommended to use this protocol once or a few times daily and maintain this protection shield throughout the Breakthrough phase to maintain the vibrational frequency of Light:
1. Relax your body, emotions and mind by focusing on your breath or in any other way that works for you
2. Visualize a brilliant white vortex of Light emanating from your Soul star chakra downwards throughout your body in a clockwise direction, purifying the energy fields of your physical, plasmatic, etheric, emotional and mental bodies. Maintain this vortex by connecting it to the source of universal Light and program it to maintain all your energy bodies purified
3. Visualize an egg shaped semi-permeable mirror shield around your auric field of your physical, plasmatic, etheric, astral and mental bodies. This mirror shield lets all positive energies into your energy field, but reflects and bounces all negative energies back to their source (return-to-sender). Program this mirror shield to alert you when any type of negative energy is directed your way and let it reflect it back to its origin
4. Visualize Light rearranging all parts of yourself and all parts of your energy fields back into state of balance and harmony. While doing that you can hum mantra OM because OM is the primaeval sound of Light and its resonance will restore harmony most effectively.


If you are under strong plasma/scalar attack, the so-called Violet Ray device can help you. By applying the wand in your auric field you can remove negative plasma generated there by the scalar attack:
Violet Ray/Darsonval device is a Tesla coil device which generates a positive plasma field and transmutes negative plasma which was generated by scalar wave manipulation. 
Another decisive element in this occult war is to bring as many people as possible away from darkness and into the Light. There are many members of the middle management of the Cabal that are doing dark deeds only because they are forced into it or because they see no other option, being under financial, psychological and physical pressure or manipulation. They are the bribed congressmen, misled high level freemasons, greedy CEOs of companies, pilots operating killing drones, soldiers pulling the trigger, personnel operating scalar directional weapons, religious fanatics acting out their traumas on innocent civilians. 
This coded message has been communicated to those middlemen from a certain source that wishes to remain anonymous: 
»The capstone of the pyramid has been removed. The all seeing eye has been forced shut and does not watch you anymore. You are now safe to return to the Light of Love. Tubal Cain.«
Dragon sources have suggested a meditation to bring Light into the souls of those people and many of them will cross into the Light, thus effectively weakening the power base of the Cabal:
1. Relax your body, emotions and mind by focusing on your breath or in any other way that works for you
2. Visualize a vortex of brilliant white Light descending from the Soul star chakra of all those Cabal middlemen into their energy field and their personality, awakening them to the reality of Light, guiding them to step away from the Cabal, giving them power to set themselves free from darkness
3. Visualize all those Cabal middlemen joining the planetary network of Light, putting down their weapons of destruction and deceit, learning to cooperate and joining the human society in a constructive way.
One of the biggest psychological blocks of the Cabal is their inferiority complex which they try to hide and mask with all that bragging about »bloodlines«. The inconvenient truth is that Cabal Khazar bloodlines originate from the primitive, crude, violent and less intelligent Neanderthal man, whereas the human masses evolved from more refined, balanced and more intelligent Cromagnon man:







Please understand that although the article above might be ideologically biased, most of hard science facts still stand. Just insert Khazarians instead of Semites/Jews when you read the article.
The Resistance Movement has issued a few warnings to the hard core of the Cabal to stop attacking Lightwarriors and Lightworkers with scalar directional energy weapons. Since those warnings were ignored, the Resistance has initialized »release the dogs« protocols. This means that they no longer hold back surface individuals and groups that would like to off members of the Cabal by their own free will and initiative. 
This means that the surface of the planet has suddenly become quite unsafe for the core members of the Cabal. This is why Donald Rumsfeld sold his house and escaped to New Mexico:
Joe Biden already had a taste of this new situation:
The Resistance Movement has communicated that if the directional energy weapons attacks do not stop, they might trigger protocols for the rapid arrest of the unholy four: Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, George Bush Sr. and Henry Kissinger. 
If those protocols are triggered, they will have drastic and destabilizing effect on the planetary geopolitical situation and although they would speed up the Event, the whole transition would be much more chaotic and violent. The Resistance is well aware of the connections of the unholy four with the Chimera group. The Resistance is hoping sanity will prevail and extreme measures can still be avoided. 
On a more positive note, RR6 will be activated the day after tomorrow and during this activation, plasma tail of comet Lovejoy will pass through Pleiades as seen from Earth. This cosmic event will send a wave of positive energy towards the plasmatic Tunnels of Set around the surface of this planet and will be a trigger for their transformation. Summarily, we can expect a lot of activity of the Light forces in the following week.

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Study: Neanderthals were not human after all, but separate species

  Excerpt from  dailydigestnews.comThe nose knows whether or not Neanderthals are members of our own species. Turns out the differences in the Neanderthal nose compared to that of modern day humans could be substantial enough to consider N...

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Is this the origins of the Anunnaki story? ~ Neanderthals & humans first mated 50,000 years ago, DNA reveals


Early European
Universal human: This reconstruction is of a different modern human from Romania 43,000 years ago. But it gives some clues to what the Siberian man may have looked like. This population was not long out of Africa and genetically midway between Europeans and Asians
Excerpt from bbc.com
The genome sequence from a thigh bone found in Siberia shows the first episode of mixing occurred between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago.

The male hunter is one of the earliest modern humans discovered in Eurasia.

The study in Nature journal also supports the finding that our species emerged from Africa some 60,000 years ago, before spreading around the world.

The analysis raises the possibility that the human line first emerged millions of years earlier than current estimates.

"We seem to have caught evolution red handed”
Prof Svante Paabo Max-Plack Institute
The work of Prof Svante Paabo, from the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig, Germany, is rewriting the story of humanity. Prof Paabo and his colleagues have pioneered methods to extract DNA from ancient human remains and read its genetic code. From this sequence, Prof Paabo has been able to decipher an increasingly detailed story of modern humans as they spread across the globe.

"The amazing thing is that we have a good genome of a 45,000 year old person who was close to the ancestor of all present-day humans outside Africa," Prof Paabo told BBC News. 

Prof Paabo has analysed DNA from part of a leg bone of a man that lived in Western Siberia around 45,000 years ago. This is a key moment at the cross roads of the world, when modern humans were on the cusp of an expansion into Europe and Asia.


Thigh bone

Prof Paabo Svante has unlocked the secrets contained in this femur from one of the earliest humans discovered out of Africa.
The key finding was that the man had large, unshuffled chunks of DNA from a now extinct species of human, Neanderthals who evolved outside of Africa. 

"Our analysis shows that modern humans had already interbred with Neanderthals then and we can determine when that first happened much more precisely than we could before." 

Prof Paabo and his team published research in 2010 which showed that all non-African humans today have Neanderthal DNA. But that genetic material has been broken into much smaller chunks over the generations. 

By extrapolating the size of DNA chunks backwards, Prof Paabo and his colleagues were able to calculate when the first interbreeding with Neanderthals occurred. His study shows that it was between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago.

According to Prof Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London, this early interbreeding might indicate when the ancestors of people living outside of Africa today made their first steps out of the continent in which our species evolved more than 150,000 years ago.

Prof Stringer was among those who believed that the first exit by modern humans from Africa that give rise to people outside of Africa today might have happened earlier, possibly 100,000 years ago. The evidence from Prof Paabo's research is persuading him that it was now much later.


River Irtysh

Crossroads for humanity: the river Irtysh in Western Siberia where the bone was found. 


Prof Paabo also compared the DNA of the man living 45,000 years ago with those living today. He found that the man was genetically midway between Europeans and Asians - indicating he lived close to the time before our species separated into different racial groups.

Prof Paabo was also able to estimate the rate at which human DNA has changed or mutated over the millennia. He found that it was slower than the rate suggested by fossil evidence and similar to what has been observed in families. 

"We have caught evolution red handed!" Prof Paabo said gleefully.
This raises the possibility that the very first species of the human line separated from apes 10 or 11 million years ago - rather than the five or six million years ago that genetic evidence had previously suggested. 

But he stressed in his research paper that much more analysis was needed before re-dating the emergence of the human line.

"We caution that (mutation) rates may have changed over time and may differ between human populations," he said.

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BBC: Scientists Discover New Race of Human Beings ~ Video Report

The ancient humans have been dubbed "Denisovans" after the caves in Siberia where their remains were found. Professor Chris Stringer: "It's nothing short of sensational - we didn't know know how ancient people in China related to these other humans" S...

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800,000 year old human footprints discovered in England



Footprints
The footprints on Happisburgh beach are possibly those of a family in search of food.

bbc.com

By Pallab Ghosh Science correspondent, BBC News

Scientists have discovered the earliest evidence of human footprints outside of Africa, on the Norfolk Coast in the East of England.

The footprints are more than 800,000 years old and were found on the shores of Happisburgh.

They are direct evidence of the earliest known humans in northern Europe. 

Details of the extraordinary markings have been published in the science journal Plos One.

Infographic

The footprints have been described as "one of the most important discoveries, if not the most important discovery that has been made on [Britain's] shores," by Dr Nick Ashton of the British Museum.
"It will rewrite our understanding of the early human occupation of Britain and indeed of Europe," he told BBC News.

The markings were first indentified in May last year during a low tide. Rough seas had eroded the sandy beach to reveal a series of elongated hollows. 

I walked with Dr Ashton along the shore where the discovery was made. He recalled how he and a colleague stumbled across the hollows: "At the time, I wondered 'could these really be the case? If it was the case, these could be the earliest footprints outside Africa and that would be absolutely incredible."
"The footprints are one of the most important discoveries, if not the most important discovery, that has been made on these shores” Dr Nick Aston British Museum
Such discoveries are very rare. The Happisburgh footprints are the only ones of this age in Europe and there are only three other sets that are older, all of which are in Africa.

"At first, we weren't sure what we were seeing," Dr Ashton told me, "but it was soon clear that the hollows resembled human footprints."

The hollows were washed away not long after they were identified. The team were, however, able to capture the footprints on video that will be shown at an exhibition at London's Natural History Museum later this month.

The video shows the researchers on their hands and knees in cold, driving rain, engaged in a race against time to record the hollows. Dr Ashton recalls how they scooped out rainwater from the footprints so that they could be photographed. "But the rain was filling the hollows as quickly as we could empty them," he told me.

"When I was told about the footprints, I was absolutely stunned” Dr Isabelle De Groote Liverpool John Moores University

The team took a 3D scan of the footprints over the following two weeks. A detailed analysis of these images by Dr Isabelle De Groote of Liverpool John Moores University confirmed that the hollows were indeed human footprints, possibly of five people, one adult male and some children. 

Dr De Groote said she could make out the heel, arch and even toes in some of the prints, the largest of which would have filled a UK shoe size 8 (European size 42; American size 9) . 

"When I was told about the footprints, I was absolutely stunned," Dr De Groote told BBC News. 

"They appear to have been made by one adult male who was about 5ft 9in (175cm) tall and the shortest was about 3ft. The other larger footprints could come from young adult males or have been left by females. The glimpse of the past that we are seeing is that we have a family group moving together across the landscape." 

Diagram of footprint scene


It is unclear who these humans were. One suggestion is that they were a species called Homo antecessor, which was known to have lived in southern Europe. It is thought that these people could have made their way to what is now Norfolk across a strip of land that connected the UK to the rest of Europe a million years ago. They would have disappeared around 800,000 years ago because of a much colder climate setting in not long after the footprints were made.

It was not until 500,000 years ago that a species called Homo heidelbergensis lived in the UK. It is thought that these people evolved into early Neanderthals some 400,000 years ago. The Neanderthals then lived in Britain intermittently until about 40,000 years ago - a time that coincided with the arrival of our species, Homo sapiens.

There are no fossils of antecessor in Happisburgh, but the circumstantial evidence of their presence is getting stronger by the day.

In 2010, the same research team discovered the stone tools used by such people. And the discovery of the footprints now all but confirms that humans were in Britain nearly a million years ago, according to Prof Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum, who is also involved in the research at Happisburgh.

"This discovery gives us even more concrete evidence that there were people there," he told BBC News. "We can now start to look at a group of people and their everyday activities. And if we keep looking, we will find even more evidence of them, hopefully even human fossils. That would be my dream".

Happisburgh
The prints were first noticed when a low tide uncovered them
Footprints
The sea has now washed away the prints - but not before they were recorded

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Could Cave Carving Be First Neanderthal Art?


This abstract cave carving is possibly the first known example of Neanderthal rock art. The etching covers an area of about 47 square inches (300 square centimeters). Stewart Finlayson


news.discovery.com

Around 39,000 years ago, a Neanderthal huddled in the back of a seaside cave at Gibraltar, safe from the hyenas, lions and leopards that might have prowled outside. Under the flickering light of a campfire, he or she used a stone tool to carefully etch what looks like a grid or a hashtag onto a natural platform of bedrock.

Archaeologists discovered this enigmatic carving during an excavation of Gorham's Cave two years ago. They had found Neanderthal cut marks on bones and tools before, but they had never seen anything like this. The researchers used Neanderthal tools to test how this geometric design was made — and to rule out the possibility the "artwork" wasn't just the byproduct of butchery. They found that recreating the grid was painstaking work.


"This was intentional — this was not somebody doodling or scratching on the surface," said study researcher Clive Finlayson, director of the Gibraltar Museum. But the discovery poses much more elusive questions: Did this engraving hold any symbolic meaning? Can it be considered art? 

Close cousins

Neanderthals roamed Eurasia from around 200,000 to 30,000 years ago, when they mysteriously went extinct. They were the closest known relatives of modern humans, and recent research has suggested that Neanderthals might have behaved more like Homo sapiens than previously thought: They buried their dead, they used pigments and feathers to decorate their bodies, and they may have even organized their caves.

Despite a growing body of evidence suggesting Neanderthals may have been cognitively similar to modern humans, a lack of art seemed to be the "the last bastion" for the argument that Neanderthals were much different from us, Finlayson said.

"Art is something else — it's an indication of abstract thinking," Finlayson told Live Science.

Archaeologists recently pushed back the date of hand stencil paintings found at El Castillo cave in northern Spain to 40,800 years ago, which opens the possibility that Neanderthals created this artwork. But there is no solid archaeological evidence to link Neanderthals to the paintings. 


Gorham's Cave

In Gorham's Cave, Finlayson and colleagues were surprised to find a series of deeply incised parallel and crisscrossing lines when they wiped away the dirt covering a bedrock surface. The rock had been sealed under a layer of soil that was littered with Mousterian stone tools (a style long linked to Neanderthals). Radiocarbon dating indicated that this soil layer was between 38,500 and 30,500 years old, suggesting the rock art buried underneath was created sometime before then. 

Gibraltar is one of the most famous sites of Neanderthal occupation. At Gorham's Cave and its surrounding caverns, archaeologists have found evidence that Neanderthals butchered seals, roasted pigeons and plucked feathers off birds of prey. In other parts of Europe, Neanderthals lived alongside humans — and may have even interbred with them. But 40,000 years ago, the southern Iberian Peninsula was a Neanderthal stronghold. Modern humans had not spread into the area yet, Finlayson said.

To test whether they were actually looking at an intentional design, the researchers decided to try to recreate the grid on smooth rock surfaces in the cave using actual stone tools left behind in a spoil heap by archaeologists who had excavated the site in the 1950s. More than 50 stone-tool incisions were needed to mimic the deepest line of the grid, and between 188 and 317 total strokes were probably needed to create the entire pattern, the researchers found. Their findings were described yesterday (Sept. 1) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Finlayson and his colleagues also tried to cut pork skin with the stone tools, to test whether the lines were merely the incidental marks left behind after the Neanderthals had butchered meat. But they couldn't replicate the engraving.

"You cannot control the groove if you're cutting through meat, no matter how hard you try," Finlayson said. "The lines go all over the place."

A simple grid is no Venus figurine


The Neanderthals' brand of abstract expressionism might not have impressed Homo sapiens art critics of the day.

"It's very basic. It's very simple," said Jean-Jacques Hublin, director of the Department of Human Evolution at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany. "It's not a Venus. It's not a bison. It's not a horse."

By the late Stone Age, modern humans who settled in Europe were already dabbling in representational art. At least a dozen different species of animals — including horses, mammoths and cave lions — are depicted in the Chauvet Cave paintings, which are up to 32,000 years old. The anatomically explicit Venus figurine discovered at Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany dates back to 35,000 years ago. Other busty female statuettes — the Venus of Galgenberg and the Venus of Dolní Vestonice — date back to about 30,000 years ago.

"There is a huge difference between making three lines that any 3-year-old kid would be able to make and sculpting a Venus," Hublin, who was not involved in the study, told Live Science.
Hublin said this discovery doesn't close the question of Neanderthals' cognitive skills. Proof that Neanderthals were capable of making a deliberate rock carving isn't evidence that they were regularly making art, he said.

"My own feeling is that if Neanderthals regularly used symbols, and given their longtime occupation throughout large parts of the Old World, we probably would have found clearer evidence by now," said Harold Dibble, an archaeologist at the University of Pennsylvania, who also was not involved in the study.

Dibble said he was convinced these markings were deliberate, but scientists need "more than a few scratches — deliberate or not — to identify symbolic behavior on the part of Neanderthals."

"Symbols, by definition, have meanings that are shared by a group of people, and because of that, they are often repeated," Dibble wrote in an email. "By itself, this is a unique example and without any intrinsic meaning … the question is not 'Could it be symbolic?' but rather 'Was it symbolic?' And to demonstrate that, it would be very important to have repeated examples."

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Neanderthals & Modern Humans Tolerated One Another

Paula Marie Navarra     ...

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Earlier dates for Neandertal extinction cause a fuss

Revised age suggests the hominids disappeared 40,000 years ago in Europeby Bruce Bower EARLY DEPARTURE  European Neandertals, including one represented by this lower jaw excavated in southern Spa...

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