Tag: paleolithic

Free the Colonies! Update and Videos


Free the Colonies! activation is coming soon. In order for people to have more understanding about the situation in our Solar System, I will explain a few things about various breakaway civilizations and their space programs.

In late Atlantean times, both Light and dark forces were openly present on the surface of the planet. When this planet was occupied by the Chimera and the Archons 26,000 years ago, all other interest groups with any significant power were forced to leave the surface and literally go underground.

The Light forces have then built their own network of underground cities and this network was holding the Light for the planet in the last 26,000 years. In various modern intel sources, this network is called the Agartha network, the Shamballa, the underground kingdom of Light…

The dark forces have also built their own network of underground dwellings and they have allied with Dracos and Reptilians already living in certain locations underground. They have been keeping the darkness for this planet in the last 26,000 years. Various modern sources were calling this network Shamballa, the Agartha network, the Naga kingdom, the Patala… So if anybody speaks about the Agartha network, you need to discern clearly which network they are referring to.




Throughout the course of the last 26,000 years, many of the most advanced members of various surface civilizations have broken away from their societies and joined the underground positive Agartha network. Among them were paleolithic Gravettian shamen, Egyptian high priests, Minoan Goddess worshipers, Greek Pythagorean disciples (forming Hav-musuv breakaway society under Death Valley in California), Roman Auguri, Maya, Inca and Hopi groups, 17th century German explorers in South America, the Marconi/Fulcanelli group in the 20th century…

The positive Agartha network had their own space program with fleet of flying disks, traveling throughout the Solar System and beyond, contacting other positive extraterrestrial races. Their freedom of movement through the Solar System was severely limited due to Chimera-imposed quarantine status of this Solar System and planet Earth especially.

In the beginning of the 20th century, the positive Pleiadians from Aldebaran have decided to assist humanity in achieving spaceflight and overunity in order to help them set free from Chimera and Cabal control. By telepathic contact through Marija Orsic of the famous Vril Society they have given instructions how to build a working spacecraft. Unfortunately, the Vril Society was taken over first by the Jesuits through their Rothschild agent Adolf Schicklgruber (Hitler) and later directly by the Chimera through their agent Karl Haushofer. Here it is interesting to note that the original positive Vril Society was financed by the Esterhazy family, which is a positive White Nobility Templar family from Hungary that claims its origin from the Sirius star system. Although the original Vril project of the Light forces has failed short-term, in long term it has given enough technological knowledge to humanity that we will now be able to defeat the Chimera.

The Chimera controlled the development of the German Nazi secret space program that went into two directions.

The more secret part of the German space program was led by Hans Kammler. Kammler was cooperating with the Green Men (an underground Draco breakaway civilization). Under Kammler, the Nazis have built a network of underground tunnels and bases in Greenland, Argentina and Antarctica. They have further expanded their territory by building colonies on the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Pumped with Nazi supremacy ideology, they foolishly believed that they can challenge the Dark Fleet (Orion/Draco/Reptilian interstellar complex). In severe battles during mid-1950s, all Nazi space colonies were completely wiped out from this Solar System by the Draco/Reptilian fleet.

The official Nazi space program was developed by Wernher von Braun. He was later paperclipped into the US along with many other scientists and absorbed into the US military-industrial complex. They have developed both the official NASA space program front and the more secret Solar Warden program (from more military faction of the Cabal) and Corporate space program (from more corporate faction of the Cabal), together with deep underground military bases. Both Solar Warden and the Corporate space programs were interconnected, but deeply compartmentalized. At the top, they were guided by the Unholy Four (Kissinger, Bush, Cheney, Rumsfeld). 




In 2012, the Light Forces have cleared all those secrets space programs, along  with all deep underground military bases such as Dulce, Area 51 and Pine Gap. Most of the top brass in these space programs was taken to the Galactic Central Sun as they have committed grave crimes and were unwilling to accept the Light. Most of the supersoldiers participating in these programs were good people that genuinely believed they are defending the Earth against the alien threat. The vast majority of them have joined the positive Alliance fleet in this Solar System and are now assisting in MOSS.

Now they will assist in the final operations to liberate our Solar System from last vestiges of darkness, the Chimera bases and implant stations.

The completion of these operations will have extremely beneficial impact on the geopolitical situation. Therefore I would ask as many people as possible to support the operations by meditating on May 30th to ensure that the whole process will take place as peacefully and as harmoniously as possible:


The Youtube videos for this activation have been prepared in 23 languages.

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Translation into other languages, especially Hindi, Bengali and Punjabi is still needed so more videos can be made. Please send your translations of the Free the Colonies! text toparlagisas777@gmail.com

The Breakthrough for our Solar System is here, Earth comes next!


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Does the discovery of 1.77-million-year-old skeletons rewrite history? ~ Video

Dr Lordkipanidze and colleagues The latest discoveries the 1.77-million-year-old skeletons of three adults and a teenager have legs and feet adapted for long-distance walking and running, similar to those of modern humans, but have hands and arms ...

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Armenian site challenges assumptions about stone age technology



By Justin Beach, Daily Digest News



Many archeologists believe that Levallois technology was invented in Africa and then spread to Eurasia during a mass migration roughly 300,000 years ago. This view is so pervasive that it is generally used to mark the transition from the Lower to the Middle Paleolithic era.

However, tools found at a site in Armenia demonstrate that the technological shift more likely happened independently, in a variety of human groups at different times rather than spreading en mass during the migration from Africa.

 
dailydigestnews.com
The site Nor Geghi 1, in Armenia, is preserved between two lava flows which occurred roughly 200,000 to 400,000 years ago. Ancient floodplain sediments between the lava flows contain a variety of archeological materials from the Paleolithic era. The dating of volcanic ash within the sediments show that the artifacts date from a 10,000 year period between 335,000 and 325,000 years ago.

Examples of both biface and, the more advanced Levallois technology are among the tools found at the site.


“The combination of these different technologies in one place suggests to us that, about 325,000 years ago, people at the site were innovative,” said Daniel Adler, associate professor of Anthropology at the University of Connecticut and the study’s lead author, in a statement.

Biface technology involves chipping away pieces from a stone, in this case obsidian, to create a tool such as a hand axe. In biface technology the pieces chipped away are discarded. The Levallois technique demonstrates more efficient use of materials by exercising greater control over the chipping process. The chips removed using the Levallois technique were generally of a size and shape to be useful for other purposes.

“If I were to take all the artifacts from the site and show them to an archaeologist, they would immediately begin to categorize them into chronologically distinct groups,” said Adler.

However, a comparison of the tools along with similar tools from Africa, the Middle East and Europe demonstrates that the technological evolution was intermittent and gradual and occurred independently in a variety of populations, rather than all at once because of a demographic shift.

The research from Adler and his colleagues can be found in the September 26 edition of the journal Science.
 

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800,000 year old human footprints discovered in England



Footprints
The footprints on Happisburgh beach are possibly those of a family in search of food.

bbc.com

By Pallab Ghosh Science correspondent, BBC News

Scientists have discovered the earliest evidence of human footprints outside of Africa, on the Norfolk Coast in the East of England.

The footprints are more than 800,000 years old and were found on the shores of Happisburgh.

They are direct evidence of the earliest known humans in northern Europe. 

Details of the extraordinary markings have been published in the science journal Plos One.

Infographic

The footprints have been described as "one of the most important discoveries, if not the most important discovery that has been made on [Britain's] shores," by Dr Nick Ashton of the British Museum.
"It will rewrite our understanding of the early human occupation of Britain and indeed of Europe," he told BBC News.

The markings were first indentified in May last year during a low tide. Rough seas had eroded the sandy beach to reveal a series of elongated hollows. 

I walked with Dr Ashton along the shore where the discovery was made. He recalled how he and a colleague stumbled across the hollows: "At the time, I wondered 'could these really be the case? If it was the case, these could be the earliest footprints outside Africa and that would be absolutely incredible."
"The footprints are one of the most important discoveries, if not the most important discovery, that has been made on these shores” Dr Nick Aston British Museum
Such discoveries are very rare. The Happisburgh footprints are the only ones of this age in Europe and there are only three other sets that are older, all of which are in Africa.

"At first, we weren't sure what we were seeing," Dr Ashton told me, "but it was soon clear that the hollows resembled human footprints."

The hollows were washed away not long after they were identified. The team were, however, able to capture the footprints on video that will be shown at an exhibition at London's Natural History Museum later this month.

The video shows the researchers on their hands and knees in cold, driving rain, engaged in a race against time to record the hollows. Dr Ashton recalls how they scooped out rainwater from the footprints so that they could be photographed. "But the rain was filling the hollows as quickly as we could empty them," he told me.

"When I was told about the footprints, I was absolutely stunned” Dr Isabelle De Groote Liverpool John Moores University

The team took a 3D scan of the footprints over the following two weeks. A detailed analysis of these images by Dr Isabelle De Groote of Liverpool John Moores University confirmed that the hollows were indeed human footprints, possibly of five people, one adult male and some children. 

Dr De Groote said she could make out the heel, arch and even toes in some of the prints, the largest of which would have filled a UK shoe size 8 (European size 42; American size 9) . 

"When I was told about the footprints, I was absolutely stunned," Dr De Groote told BBC News. 

"They appear to have been made by one adult male who was about 5ft 9in (175cm) tall and the shortest was about 3ft. The other larger footprints could come from young adult males or have been left by females. The glimpse of the past that we are seeing is that we have a family group moving together across the landscape." 

Diagram of footprint scene


It is unclear who these humans were. One suggestion is that they were a species called Homo antecessor, which was known to have lived in southern Europe. It is thought that these people could have made their way to what is now Norfolk across a strip of land that connected the UK to the rest of Europe a million years ago. They would have disappeared around 800,000 years ago because of a much colder climate setting in not long after the footprints were made.

It was not until 500,000 years ago that a species called Homo heidelbergensis lived in the UK. It is thought that these people evolved into early Neanderthals some 400,000 years ago. The Neanderthals then lived in Britain intermittently until about 40,000 years ago - a time that coincided with the arrival of our species, Homo sapiens.

There are no fossils of antecessor in Happisburgh, but the circumstantial evidence of their presence is getting stronger by the day.

In 2010, the same research team discovered the stone tools used by such people. And the discovery of the footprints now all but confirms that humans were in Britain nearly a million years ago, according to Prof Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum, who is also involved in the research at Happisburgh.

"This discovery gives us even more concrete evidence that there were people there," he told BBC News. "We can now start to look at a group of people and their everyday activities. And if we keep looking, we will find even more evidence of them, hopefully even human fossils. That would be my dream".

Happisburgh
The prints were first noticed when a low tide uncovered them
Footprints
The sea has now washed away the prints - but not before they were recorded

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Could Cave Carving Be First Neanderthal Art?


This abstract cave carving is possibly the first known example of Neanderthal rock art. The etching covers an area of about 47 square inches (300 square centimeters). Stewart Finlayson


news.discovery.com

Around 39,000 years ago, a Neanderthal huddled in the back of a seaside cave at Gibraltar, safe from the hyenas, lions and leopards that might have prowled outside. Under the flickering light of a campfire, he or she used a stone tool to carefully etch what looks like a grid or a hashtag onto a natural platform of bedrock.

Archaeologists discovered this enigmatic carving during an excavation of Gorham's Cave two years ago. They had found Neanderthal cut marks on bones and tools before, but they had never seen anything like this. The researchers used Neanderthal tools to test how this geometric design was made — and to rule out the possibility the "artwork" wasn't just the byproduct of butchery. They found that recreating the grid was painstaking work.


"This was intentional — this was not somebody doodling or scratching on the surface," said study researcher Clive Finlayson, director of the Gibraltar Museum. But the discovery poses much more elusive questions: Did this engraving hold any symbolic meaning? Can it be considered art? 

Close cousins

Neanderthals roamed Eurasia from around 200,000 to 30,000 years ago, when they mysteriously went extinct. They were the closest known relatives of modern humans, and recent research has suggested that Neanderthals might have behaved more like Homo sapiens than previously thought: They buried their dead, they used pigments and feathers to decorate their bodies, and they may have even organized their caves.

Despite a growing body of evidence suggesting Neanderthals may have been cognitively similar to modern humans, a lack of art seemed to be the "the last bastion" for the argument that Neanderthals were much different from us, Finlayson said.

"Art is something else — it's an indication of abstract thinking," Finlayson told Live Science.

Archaeologists recently pushed back the date of hand stencil paintings found at El Castillo cave in northern Spain to 40,800 years ago, which opens the possibility that Neanderthals created this artwork. But there is no solid archaeological evidence to link Neanderthals to the paintings. 


Gorham's Cave

In Gorham's Cave, Finlayson and colleagues were surprised to find a series of deeply incised parallel and crisscrossing lines when they wiped away the dirt covering a bedrock surface. The rock had been sealed under a layer of soil that was littered with Mousterian stone tools (a style long linked to Neanderthals). Radiocarbon dating indicated that this soil layer was between 38,500 and 30,500 years old, suggesting the rock art buried underneath was created sometime before then. 

Gibraltar is one of the most famous sites of Neanderthal occupation. At Gorham's Cave and its surrounding caverns, archaeologists have found evidence that Neanderthals butchered seals, roasted pigeons and plucked feathers off birds of prey. In other parts of Europe, Neanderthals lived alongside humans — and may have even interbred with them. But 40,000 years ago, the southern Iberian Peninsula was a Neanderthal stronghold. Modern humans had not spread into the area yet, Finlayson said.

To test whether they were actually looking at an intentional design, the researchers decided to try to recreate the grid on smooth rock surfaces in the cave using actual stone tools left behind in a spoil heap by archaeologists who had excavated the site in the 1950s. More than 50 stone-tool incisions were needed to mimic the deepest line of the grid, and between 188 and 317 total strokes were probably needed to create the entire pattern, the researchers found. Their findings were described yesterday (Sept. 1) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Finlayson and his colleagues also tried to cut pork skin with the stone tools, to test whether the lines were merely the incidental marks left behind after the Neanderthals had butchered meat. But they couldn't replicate the engraving.

"You cannot control the groove if you're cutting through meat, no matter how hard you try," Finlayson said. "The lines go all over the place."

A simple grid is no Venus figurine


The Neanderthals' brand of abstract expressionism might not have impressed Homo sapiens art critics of the day.

"It's very basic. It's very simple," said Jean-Jacques Hublin, director of the Department of Human Evolution at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany. "It's not a Venus. It's not a bison. It's not a horse."

By the late Stone Age, modern humans who settled in Europe were already dabbling in representational art. At least a dozen different species of animals — including horses, mammoths and cave lions — are depicted in the Chauvet Cave paintings, which are up to 32,000 years old. The anatomically explicit Venus figurine discovered at Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany dates back to 35,000 years ago. Other busty female statuettes — the Venus of Galgenberg and the Venus of Dolní Vestonice — date back to about 30,000 years ago.

"There is a huge difference between making three lines that any 3-year-old kid would be able to make and sculpting a Venus," Hublin, who was not involved in the study, told Live Science.
Hublin said this discovery doesn't close the question of Neanderthals' cognitive skills. Proof that Neanderthals were capable of making a deliberate rock carving isn't evidence that they were regularly making art, he said.

"My own feeling is that if Neanderthals regularly used symbols, and given their longtime occupation throughout large parts of the Old World, we probably would have found clearer evidence by now," said Harold Dibble, an archaeologist at the University of Pennsylvania, who also was not involved in the study.

Dibble said he was convinced these markings were deliberate, but scientists need "more than a few scratches — deliberate or not — to identify symbolic behavior on the part of Neanderthals."

"Symbols, by definition, have meanings that are shared by a group of people, and because of that, they are often repeated," Dibble wrote in an email. "By itself, this is a unique example and without any intrinsic meaning … the question is not 'Could it be symbolic?' but rather 'Was it symbolic?' And to demonstrate that, it would be very important to have repeated examples."

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Neanderthals & Modern Humans Tolerated One Another

Paula Marie Navarra     ...

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How many people have ever lived on earth?





blog.world-mysteries.com

Assuming that we start counting from about 50,000 B.C., the time when modern Homo sapiens appeared on the earth (and not from 700,000 B.C. when the ancestors of Homo sapiens appeared, or several million years ago when hominids were present), taking into account that all population data are a rough estimate, and assuming a constant growth rate applied to each period up to modern times, it has been estimated that a total of approximately 106 billion people have been born since the dawn of the human race, making the population currently alive roughly 6% of all people who have ever lived on planet Earth. Others have estimated the number of human beings who have ever lived to be anywhere from 45 billion to 125 billion, with most estimates falling into the range of 90 to 110 billion humans.

YearPopulation
50,000 B.C.2
8000 B.C.5,000,000
1 A.D.300,000,000
1200450,000,000
1650500,000,000
1750795,000,000
18501,265,000,000
19001,656,000,000
19502,516,000,000
19955,760,000,000
20026,215,000,000
Number who have ever been born106,456,367,669
World population in mid-20026,215,000,000
Percent of those ever born who are living in 20025.8
The above estimate shows  that about 5.8 percent of all people ever born are alive today.  
That’s actually a fairly large percentage when you think about it. Source: Population 
Reference Bureau estimates.


Number of people who have ever lived

Estimates of  “the total number of people who have ever lived” published in the first decade of the 21st century range approximately from 100 to 115 billion.

An estimate of the total number of people who have ever lived was prepared by Carl Haub of the Population Reference Bureau in 1995 and subsequently updated in 2002; the updated figure was approximately 106 billion. Haub characterized this figure as an estimate that required “selecting population sizes for different points from antiquity to the present and applying assumed birth rates to each period”. Given an estimated global population of 6.2 billion in 2002, it could be inferred that about 6% of all people who had ever existed were alive in 2002.
In the 1970s it was a popular belief that 75% of all the people who had ever lived were alive in the 1970s, which would have put the total number of people who ever lived as of the 1970s as less than the number of people alive today. This view was eventually debunked.
The number is difficult to estimate for the following reasons:
* The set of specific characteristics that define a human is a matter of definition, and it is open to debate which members of early Homo sapiens and earlier or related species of Homo to include. See in this regard also Sorites paradox. Even if the scientific community reached wide consensus regarding which characteristics distinguished human beings, it would be nearly impossible to pinpoint the time of their first appearance to even the nearest millennium because the fossil record is simply too sparse. However, the limited size of population in early times compared to its recent size makes this source of uncertainty of limited importance.
* Robust statistical data only exist for the last two or three centuries. Until the late 18th century, few governments had ever performed an accurate census. In many early attempts, such as Ancient Egypt and in the Persian Empire the focus was on counting merely a subset of the people for purposes of taxation or military service.[108] All claims of population sizes preceding the 18th century are estimates, and thus the margin of error for the total number of humans who have ever lived should be in the billions, or even tens of billions of people.
* A critical item for the estimation is life expectancy. Using a figure of twenty years and the population estimates above, one can compute about fifty-eight billion. Using a figure of forty yields half of that. Life expectancy varies greatly when taking into account children who died within the first year of birth, a number very difficult to estimate for earlier times. Haub states that “life expectancy at birth probably averaged only about ten years for most of human history”[106] His estimates for infant mortality suggest that around 40% of those who have ever lived did not survive beyond one year. [ Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population ]


Estimated world population at various dates (in millions)

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population

YearWorld(in millions)
70,000 BC< 0.015
10,000 BC1
9000 BC3
8000 BC5
7000 BC7
6000 BC10
5000 BC15
4000 BC20
3000 BC25
2000 BC35
1000 BC50
500 BC100
AD 1200
AD 1000310
AD 1750791
AD 1800978
AD 18501,262
AD 19001,650
AD 19502,519
AD 19552,756
AD 19602,982
AD 19653,335
AD 19703,692
AD 19754,068
AD 19804,435
AD 19854,831
AD 19905,263
AD 19955,674
AD 20006,070
AD 20056,454
Jul. 1, 20086,707

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Several Paleolithic Cultures Flourished In North Africa before Sumer


African-Tool-Diversity
(Courtesy The British Museum)


OXFORD, ENGLAND—A new study of Paleolithic stone tools from 17 sites in North Africa shows that between 130,000 and 75,000 years ago, there were at least four separate populations in the region, each with its own distinctive cultural traits, reports phys.org. Researchers led by University of Oxford visiting scholar Eleanor Scerii made 300,000 measurements on stone tools and combined the data with enviromental reconstuctions of prehistoric North Africa to analyze how modern human populations dispersed across the Sahara using ancient rivers and streams that no longer exist. "This is the first time that scientists have identified that early modern humans at the cusp of dispersal out of Africa were grouped in separate, isolated and local populations," says Scerii. "Our picture of modern human demography around 100,000 years ago is that there were a number of populations, varying in size and degree of genetic contact, distributed over a wide geographical area." According to Scerii, the team's work supports the theory that modern humans left Africa before 60,000-50,000 years ago.

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