Dr. Rita Louise, GuestWhy Did Our Ancestors Inter This Ancient Massive Architectural Wonder?Located at the highest point of the Germus range in the southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey is the mysterious site of Göbekli Tepe. Excavations at Göbekli Tepe commenced in 1995 after German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt realized what was thought to be a Byzantine cemetery was actually a prehistoric site. Schmidt quickly unearthed a number of T-shaped pillars, which set th [...]
Since 1975, when Hawking showed that black holes evaporate from our universe, physicists have tried to explain what happens to a black hole’s information.
What happens to the information that goes into a black hole? Is it irretrievably lost? Does it gradually or suddenly leak out? Is it stored somehow? Physicists have puzzled for decades over what they call the information loss paradox in black holes. A new study by physicists at University at Buffalo – published in March, 2015 in the journal in Physical Review Letters – shows that information going into a black hole is not lost at all.
Instead, these researchers say, it’s possible for an observer standing outside of a black hole to recover information about what lies within.
Dejan Stojkovic, associate professor of physics at the University at Buffalo, did the research with his student Anshul Saini as co-author. Stojkovic said in a statement:
According to our work, information isn’t lost once it enters a black hole. It doesn’t just disappear.
What sort of information are we talking about? In principle, any information drawn into a black hole has an unknown future, according to modern physics. That information could include, for example, the characteristics of the object that formed the black hole to begin with, and characteristics of all matter and energy drawn inside.
Stojkovic says his research “marks a significant step” toward solving the information loss paradox, a problem that has plagued physics for almost 40 years, since Stephen Hawking first proposed that black holes could radiate energy and evaporate over time, disappearing from the universe and taking their information with them.
Disappearing information is a problem for physicists because it’s a violation of quantum mechanics, which states that information must be conserved.
According to modern physics, any information related to an astronaut entering a black hole – for example, height, weight, hair color – may be lost. This notion is known as the ‘information loss paradox’ of black holes because it violates quantum mechanics. Artist’s concept via Nature.
Stojkovic says that physicists – even those who believed information was not lost in black holes – have struggled to show mathematically how the information is preserved. He says his new paper presents explicit calculations demonstrating how it can be preserved. His statement from University at Buffalo explained:
In the 1970s, [Stephen] Hawking proposed that black holes were capable of radiating particles, and that the energy lost through this process would cause the black holes to shrink and eventually disappear. Hawking further concluded that the particles emitted by a black hole would provide no clues about what lay inside, meaning that any information held within a black hole would be completely lost once the entity evaporated.
Though Hawking later said he was wrong and that information could escape from black holes, the subject of whether and how it’s possible to recover information from a black hole has remained a topic of debate.
Stojkovic and Saini’s new paper helps to clarify the story. Instead of looking only at the particles a black hole emits, the study also takes into account the subtle interactions between the particles. By doing so, the research finds that it is possible for an observer standing outside of a black hole to recover information about what lies within. Interactions between particles can range from gravitational attraction to the exchange of mediators like photons between particles. Such “correlations” have long been known to exist, but many scientists discounted them as unimportant in the past.
These correlations were often ignored in related calculations since they were thought to be small and not capable of making a significant difference. Our explicit calculations show that though the correlations start off very small, they grow in time and become large enough to change the outcome.
Artist’s impression of a black hole, via Icarus
Bottom line: Since 1975, when Stephen Hawking and Jacob Bekenstein showed that black holes should slowly radiate away energy and ultimately disappear from the universe, physicists have tried to explain what happens to information inside a black hole. Dejan Stojkovic and Anshul Saini, both of University at Buffalo, just published a new study that contains specific calculations showing that information within a black hole is not lost.
Excerpt from cbsnews.com Rings of stars thought to surround the Milky Way are actually part of it, according to new research, meaning the galaxy is bigger than previously believed.The findings extend the known width of the Milk...
Excerpt from savingadvice.com For those who want to save money, one of the best free resources available to everyone are nature’s displays. The first weekend of the New Year will begin with a bang, although this bang will be of interstellar origins. This weekend (Jan. 3), the first meteor display of 2015 will reach its peak on Saturday night in a display of lights known as the Quadrantid meteor shower. According to science reporter Geoff Gaherty, “Meteor shows are usually named after the constellation in the sky where their radiant is located: the point in the sky from which they appear to radiate. Thus, the Perseids [showers] are named for Perseus and the Geminids [showers] are named for Gemini.”
Interestingly, Gaherty informs the reader that “there is no constellation named Quadrans” whence scientists derived the name Quadrantid. Instead, there was once the Quadrans Muralis constellation, which became a part of the constellation Bootes in 1922. The name of the meteor, however, was retained.
Quadrantids are also known to be a January meteor shower, as opposed to the more famous Perseids observed in August or the Geminids seen in December. Additionally, quadrantid meteors are less frequently observed than the other two meteor showers given that its peak intensity lasts only hours. Still, Gaherty writes that the Quadrantid shower “can produce as many bright meteors during its peak as the more famous Perseids.” Thus, in order to view this spectacular display, “timing is everything.”
Using past observations, researchers predict that the peak of 2015′s Quadrantid meteor shower will occur at 9 p.m. EST on Jan. 3. “During this time, the radiant will be close to the northern horizon and there is a good chance of seeing…meteors coming in close to the horizon to the east and west.”
The radiant, however, is expected to rise higher in the northeastern sky, until more meteors become visible in the east. According to Gaherty, the best time to then observe the Quadrantids will be between midnight and 2 a.m. (some reports say dawn) in the Northern Hemisphere.
Unfortunately, the shooting stars may be hard to view because of an almost-full moon on Saturday, which will radiate its own impressive brightness. Still, NASA predicts that at the peak of the Quadrantid shower, approximately 80 meteors an hour will be released, which should be remarkable in its own right.
Randi G. Fine, Contributor“Be the change you wish to see in the world.” GhandiMany of us feel helpless when we hear about the inhumane atrocities that are occurring around the world. We have witnessed unfathomable cruelty – evil. We live in terror of the possibility that this evil will soon pervade our own homelands.We desperately pray to God to save us. We throw our hands up in despair asking, “Where is God when we need him [...]
Flowers are meant to blossom, and you are meant to blossom the same. So then, blossom.
How simple is life when you remember that you are a flower that grows to the sun and blooms. It is a simple task. It is ...