Tag: shed Light

Seeds of New Light, Christ, the Anti Christ, Oh My!! Lisa Gawlas

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Astronomers find baby blue galaxy close to dawn of time

Astronomers have discovered a baby blue galaxy that is the furthest away in distance and time - 13.1 billion years - that they’ve ever seen. Photo: Pascal Oesch and Ivelina Momcheva, NASA, European Space Agency via AP

Excerpt from smh.com.au

A team of astronomers peering deep into the heavens have discovered the earliest, most distant galaxy yet, just 670 million years after the Big Bang.

Astronomers have discovered a baby blue galaxy that is the furthest away in distance and time - 13.1 billion years - that they’ve ever seen.
Close-up of the blue galaxy

The findings, described in Astrophysical Journal Letters, reveal a surprisingly active, bright galaxy near the very dawn of the cosmos that could shed light on what the universe, now 13.8 billion years old, was really like in its young, formative years.

"We're actually looking back through 95 per cent of all time to see this galaxy," said study co-author Garth Illingworth, an astronomer at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

"It's really a galaxy in its infancy ... when the universe was in its infancy."

Capturing an image from a far-off light source is like looking back in time. When we look at the sun, we're seeing a snapshot of what it looked like eight minutes ago.

The same principle applies for the light coming from the galaxy known as EGS-zs8-1. We are seeing this distant galaxy as it existed roughly 13.1 billion years ago.

EGS-zs8-1 is so far away that the light coming from it is exceedingly faint. And yet, compared with other distant galaxies, it is surprisingly active and bright, forming stars at roughly 80 times the rate the Milky Way does today.

This precocious little galaxy has built up the mass equivalent to about 8 billion suns, more than 15 per cent of the mass of the Milky Way, even though it appears to have been in existence for a mere fraction of the Milky Way's more than 13 billion years.

"If it was a galaxy near the Milky Way [today], it would be this vivid blue colour, just because it's forming so many stars," Illingworth said.

One of the many challenges with looking for such faint galaxies is that it's hard to tell if they're bright and far, or dim and near. Astronomers can usually figure out which it is by measuring how much that distant starlight gets stretched, "redshifted", from higher-energy light such as ultraviolet down to optical and then infrared wavelengths. The universe is expanding faster and faster, so the further away a galaxy is, the faster it's going, and the more stretched, or "redder", those wavelengths of light will be.

The astronomers studied the faint light from this galaxy using NASA's Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes. But EGS-zs8-1 seemed to be too bright to be coming from the vast distances that the Hubble data suggested.

To narrow in, they used the MOSFIRE infrared spectrograph at the Keck I telescope in Hawaii to search for a particularly reliable fingerprint of hydrogen in the starlight known as the Lyman-alpha line. This fingerprint lies in the ultraviolet part of the light spectrum, but has been shifted to redder, longer wavelengths over the vast distance between the galaxy and Earth.

It's a dependable line on which to base redshift (and distance) estimates, Illingworth said - and with that settled, the team could put constraints on the star mass, star formation rate and formation epoch of this galaxy.

The telltale Lyman-alpha line also reveals the process through which the universe's haze of neutral hydrogen cleared up, a period called the epoch of reionisation. As stars formed and galaxies grew, their ultraviolet radiation eventually ionised the hydrogen and ended the "dark ages" of the cosmos.

Early galaxies-such as EGS-zs8-1 - are "probably the source of ultraviolet radiation that ionised the whole universe", Illingworth said.

Scientists have looked for the Lyman-alpha line in other distant galaxies and come up empty, which might mean that their light was still being blocked by a haze of neutral hydrogen that had not been ionised yet.

But it's hard to say with just isolated examples, Illingworth pointed out. If scientists can survey many galaxies from different points in the universe's very early history, they can have a better sense of how reionisation may have progressed.

"We're trying to understand how many galaxies do have this line - and that gives us some measure of when the universe itself was reionised," Illingworth said.

"One [galaxy] is interesting, but it's when you have 50 that you can really say something about what galaxies were really like then."
As astronomers push the limits of current telescopes and await the completion of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, set for launch in 2018, scientists may soon find more of these galaxies even closer to the birth of the universe than this new record breaker.

"You don't get to be record holder very long in this business," Illingworth said, "which is good because ultimately we are trying to learn about the universe. So more is better."

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Radiation from long Mars journey could damage astronauts’ brains

Excerpt from naplesnews.com

Many things would be difficult about conducting a manned mission to Mars, from designing a spacecraft that could make the 34-million-mile journey, to stocking and fueling it, to keeping its astronauts from getting flabby and bored.
On Friday, researchers shed light on another potential hurdle: figuring out a way to protect travelers’ brains from the damaging effects of cosmic rays in outer space.
When University of California, Irvine neuroscientist Charles Limoli and colleagues exposed mice to radiation similar to that astronauts would encounter far beyond Earth, the animals experienced changes in their brains that impaired their performance on tests of learning and memory, the team reported in an article — “What happens to your brain on the way to Mars” — in the journal Science Advances.
The researchers’ results suggested that astronauts could suffer cognitive impairment during an extended journey through space.
“Over the course of a two- to three-year mission, the damage would accumulate,” Limoli said. “To mitigate it, we need to understand it.”
To test the effects of space radiation on the brain, the researchers took mice to the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, which attempts to simulate radiation conditions in space. They exposed the animals to oxygen and titanium ions, atoms with their electrons stripped away that are similar to the charged particles in cosmic rays.
Six weeks later, back in California, they tested the mice’s learning and memory by placing them in pens with toys, letting them get used to their surroundings, and then making changes such as introducing a new toy. Mice that had been exposed to the radiation were less aware of or curious about the changes in their environment than controls that had not been irradiated — a sign that they had cognitive deficits.
“A smart animal will recognize the change,” Limoli said.
When the researchers later studied the animals’ brain tissue, they found that mice that performed poorly on the tests also had less dense branching in their brain cells, due to damage from the radiation. The structural changes would impede the brain’s ability to transmit signals and process information.
Limoli got involved in the NASA-backed research as an outgrowth of his work on the effects of radiation on brain cancer patients. Radiation therapy forestalls brain cancer progression, he said — but it can take a tremendous toll on the central nervous system, causing depression, anxiety and mood disorders, and deficits in learning and executive function. Pediatric patients can lose 20 to 30 I.Q. points after receiving radiation treatments to the brain.
“Doctors have gotten really good at curing cancer, but maintaining a good quality of life has been a problem,” Limoli said. “This is an unmet medical need.”
Astronauts flying to Mars and getting hit by cosmic rays, which are the remnants of supernova explosions, wouldn’t get anything close to the high doses of radiation that cancer patients receive, but they “might be prone to mistakes,” Limoli thought.
To counteract that threat during planning for a possible mission, scientists might come up with more advanced shielding options — perhaps embedded in helmets — or drug treatments that might ameliorate radiation’s impacts on the brain, similar to the ones Limoli is exploring for cancer patients.

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NASA wants your vote on Ceres’ mysterious bright spots

NASA wants your vote on Ceres’ bright spots

The nature of the bright spots has yet to be elucidated.

Excerpt from thespacereporter.com

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory has set up a website at which members of the public can register their votes as to the identify of the strange and unexpected bright spots seen on Ceres by the Dawn probe. Although Dawn will study the spots in much greater detail in the near future, having just assumed its first scientific orbit, in the meantime the nature of spots in anyone’s guess. This author voted for “ice”.

It seems ice is the most popular possibility so far, with 33 percent of the vote. The next most popular choice is “other”, with 28 percent. “Volcano” and “geyser” both have 11 percent, “salt deposit” has nine percent, and “rock” has eight percent.

At about 590 miles in diameter, Ceres is the largest body in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Dawn had imaged Ceres’s surface throughout its approach. Dawn entered orbit of Ceres on March 6, the first spacecraft to orbit a dwarf planet. From 2011 to 2012, Dawn also orbited the asteroid Vesta, the second-most massive body in the asteroid belt. Having studied both Vesta and Ceres, Dawn is the first spacecraft in history to orbit two extraterrestrial objects. Dawn’s investigations of Vesta and Ceres will shed light on the early evolution of our solar system; both bodies represent incipient planets, gravitationally perturbed early in their formation.

“The approach imaging campaign has completed successfully by giving us a preliminary, tantalizing view of the world Dawn is about to start exploring in detail. It has allowed us to start asking some new and intriguing questions,” said Marc Rayman, Dawn’s mission director and chief engineer at the JPL, in a separate NASA statement.

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Is Titan submarine the most daring space mission yet?

The submersible could extract cores from the seabed to unlock a rich climatic historyExcerpt from bbc.comDropping a robotic lander on to the surface of a comet was arguably one of the most audacious space achievements of recent times. But one...

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The Moon’s History Is Surprisingly Complex, Chinese Rover Finds

Excerpt from space.com

The moon's past was livelier and more complex than scientists had thought, new results from China's first lunar rover suggest.

China's Yutu moon rover found evidence of at least nine distinct rock layers deep beneath its wheels, indicating that the area has been surprisingly geologically active over the past 3.3 billion years.
"Two things are most interesting," said Long Xiao, a researcher at the China University of Geosciences in Wuhan, who is the lead author of the study detailing the new findings. "One is [that] more volcanic events have been defined in the late volcanism history of the moon," Xiao told Space.com via email

"Another is the lunar mare [volcanic plain] area is not only composed of basaltic lavas, but also explosive eruption-formed pyroclastic rocks," Xiao added. "The latter finding may shed light on … the volatile contents in the lunar mantle." 

China's Yutu rover traveled about 374 feet (114 meters) on the moon in a zigzag fashion after touching down in December 2013

Yutu (whose name means "jade rabbit") is part of China's Chang'e 3 moon mission. Chang'e 3 delivered Yutu and a stationary lander to the lunar surface on Dec. 14, 2013 — the first soft touchdown on the moon since the Soviet Union's Luna 24 mission in 1976.
Yutu traveled 374 feet (114 meters) on the moon in a zigzag fashion before a glitch ended its travels in January 2014. 

The rover was equipped with cameras and three main scientific instruments — the Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR), the Visible Near-Infrared Spectrometer (VNIS) and the Active Particle-Induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). The new study, which was published online today (March 12) in the journal Science, reports results from the camera and the LPR, which can probe about 1,300 feet (400 m) beneath the moon's surface.

Those data paint a detailed portrait of the Chang'e 3 landing site, which sits just 165 feet (50 m) away from a 1,475-foot-wide (450 m) crater known as C1. C1 was gouged out by a cosmic impact that occurred sometime between 80 million and 27 million years ago, the study authors said.

Yutu studied the ground it rolled over, characterized the craters it cruised past and investigated an oddly coarse-textured rock dubbed Loong, which measures about 13 feet long by 5 feet high (4 by 1.5 m). Overall, the rover's observations suggest that the composition of its landing site is quite different from that of the places visited by NASA's Apollo missions and the Soviet Union's Luna program.
While Yutu isn't beaming home any new data these days, the scientific community can expect to hear about more discoveries from the mission shortly, Xiao said.

"Unfortunately, Yutu encountered mechanical problems and has ended its mission," he told Space.com. "No more data will come. However, our report only provides the scientific results based on imagery and radar data. More results from NIS and APXS for composition study will come out soon."

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Warp in spacetime lets astronomers watch the same star explode four times

Excerpt from csmonitor.com

Thanks to a phenomenon known as gravitational lensing, the Hubble Space Telescope has captured four images of the same supernova explosion.

For the first time, a cosmic magnifying glass has allowed scientists to see the same star explosion four times, possibly offering a revealing glimpse into these explosive stellar deaths and the nature of the accelerating universe.

Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope have captured four images of a supernova explosion in deep space thanks to a galaxy located between Earth and the massive star explosion. You can see how Hubble saw the supernova in this NASA video. The galaxy cluster warped the fabric of space and time around it — like a bowling ball placed on a bed sheet — allowing scientists to see the supernova in four images.

"It was predicted 50 years ago that a supernova could be gravitationally lensed like this, but it's taken a long time for someone to find an example," lead study author Patrick Kelly, an astronomer at the University of California, Berkeley told Space.com. "It's fun to have been able to find the first one." 

The supernova, which was discovered on Nov. 11, 2014, is located about 9.3 billion light-years away from Earth, near the edge of the observable universe. The researchers have named the distant supernova SN Refsdal in honor of the late Norwegian astrophysicist Sjur Refsdal, a pioneer of gravitational lensing studies. Due to gravitational lensing, "the supernova appears 20 times brighter than its normal brightness," study co-author Jens Hjorth, head of the Dark Cosmology Centre at the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen, said in a statement.
The lensing galaxy, which is about 5 billion light-years from Earth, is part of a large cluster of galaxies known MACS J1149.6+2223. In 2009, astronomers discovered that this cluster was the source of the largest known image of a spiral galaxy ever seen through a gravitational lens.

The four images of the supernova each appeared separately over the course of a few weeks. This is because light can take various paths around and through a gravitational lens, arriving at Earth at different times.

Using gravity as a lens

Gravity is created when matter warps the fabric of reality. The greater the mass of an object, the more space-time curves around that object and the stronger its gravitational pull, the discovery enshrined in Einstein's theory of general relativity, which celebrates its centennial this year.

As a result, gravity can also bend light like a lens, meaning objects see n behind powerful gravitational fields, such as those of massive galaxies, are magnified. Gravitational lensing was first discovered in 1979, and today gravitational lenses can help astronomers see features otherwise too distant and faint to detect with even the largest telescopes.

"These gravitational lenses are like a natural magnifying glass. It's like having a much bigger telescope," Kelly said in a statement. "We can get magnifications of up to 100 times by looking through these galaxy clusters."

When light is far from a gravitationally lensing mass, or if the gravitationally lensing mass is not especially large, only "weak lensing" occurs, barely distorting the light. However, when the light comes from almost exactly behind the gravitationally lensing mass, "strong lensing" can happen. 

When a strongly lensed object occupies a large patch of space — for instance, if it's a galaxy — it can get smeared into an "Einstein ring" surrounding a gravitationally lensing mass. However, strong lensing of small, pointlike items — for instance, super-bright objects known as quasars — often produces multiple images surrounding the gravitationally lensing mass, resulting in a so-called "Einstein cross."

The observations of SN Refsdal mark the first time astronomers on Earth have witnessed strong lensing of a  supernova, with four images of an exploding star arrayed as an Einstein cross.

An expanding universe

These new findings could help scientists measure the accelerating rate at which the universe is expanding, researchers say.

A computer model of the lensing cluster suggests the scientists missed chances to see the lensed supernova 50 and 10 years ago. However, the model also suggests more images of the explosion will repeat again within the next 10 years.

The timing of when all these images of the supernova arrive depends on the gravitational pull of the matter generating the gravitational lens. So, by measuring those times, the researchers hope to map how visible normal matter and invisible dark matter is distributed in the lensing galaxy.

Dark matter is currently one of the greatest mysteries in science, a poorly understood substance thought to make up five-sixths of all matter in the universe. A better understanding of how dark matter is behaving in this gravitationally lensing cluster might help shed light on the material's nature, Kelly said.

Analyzing when the images arrive could also help scientists pinpoint the rate at which the universe is expanding. Although there are already several ways to measure the cosmic expansion rate, "there has been a lot of heated debate between different methods, so it'd be interesting to see how this new technique might affect the area," Kelly said. "It's always nice to have completely independent measurements of the same quantity."

The scientists detailed their findings in the March 6 issue of the journal Science.

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Breakfast With God: Part 4

Channeler: Maureen Moss

Dearest Hearts,

As always, I pray you are well. This month I have had many messages from God along with several Masters that I hadn't worked with for awhile.

All have come about as a result of a compelling summons from my Soul, a couple of months ago, prior to my birthday, to enter into a state of silence and pass through the final stages of healing and purification required for Ascension. I took a deep breath, listened, and made the preparations to do so, letting nothing stand in my way.

My mind reminded me that this has been a very tough journey. My heart told me to be grateful for every bit of it.

At this point, I was not about to fall short of whatever I must be or whatever I must do to step fully into the Light, and live in peace.

I headed to the place on the grid in the United States that I am most in alignment and rapport with. On the first day, I went to my favorite source of nourishment, the ocean, to have breakfast with God.

I began with a prayer. "Dear God, on this day and from this day forward I surrender all of me to You. I sit on the shore of Your magnificent creation, by the summons of my soul. I am asking You, dear God, to usher me through the final initiations that stand between my human experience and my Divine One. Dear God, shine your Light where there is darkness. Take my hand and lead me, knowing that I have, with deep trust, made this commitment to follow as you lead. I am in deep gratitude for this calling."

I then remained still, becoming full with an unexpected joy I had not felt, for quite some time.

That day, and for many weeks that still continue, I have had revelations, conversations, remembrances, more tests, frequency shifts and blessings. I notice I have to keep very close to the inside of myself to remain fully aligned with God, as the planetary energy intensifies significantly, attempting to push everybody's buttons.

For the purpose of this article I will share what came from this particular "Breakfast With God" conversation that is not personal, though concerns all of humanity. Much more will come in the months ahead.

"You have nearly reached the end of one of the most important incarnations, if not the most important incarnation of your time. The book of records for this long and arduous evolutionary period will soon be closed and stored, for later review. You have each created quite a 'story' for yourselves.

How do you feel? Do you remember the goals you set for your incarnation? How have you managed with the curriculum leading you through the Ascension protocols? Do you see the Light or are you still in the tunnel?

I will share with you what I see, which perhaps will shed Light for you and give you further leverage to lift your Life; not as a matter of judgment, as a matter of observance.

There are those of you, through blind faith, seemingly endless trials and tribulations and gut wrenching tears, that have boldly taken this incarnation to heart. You have succeeded in letting go of judgments, deeply embedded patterns, emotional wounds and traumas. You did so with a compassionate nature and a renewed respect for yourself.

You have awakened your sleeping consciousness, and returned to the heart and mind of God.

Often, you claimed and invoked the power of My name, I Am, as yours, to raise your vibration and inflame your memories of who you truly are. You used your powers fiercely, humbly and intentionally to move every mountain that attempted to stand in your way, particularly your mind and ego.

You opened a new level of alignment with Me and with the Earth, each time you claimed I AM. You activated, and strengthened your rapport with Me and your I Am Presence each time you proclaimed and embraced the Truth, that you are, I Am.

You studied and called forth the Christ Consciousness repeatedly until it became your consciousness. You will make your Ascension (if you have not already), before the close of 2012.

There are those of you that are now making great strides to actively pursue your incarnation with unsealed minds and hearts filled with love. You are living on behalf of yourself, rather than against yourself.

You are willingly surrendering to the path that is laid before you with compassion, commitment, trust and gratitude. You are remembering how to manage energy, as well as the ways to raise your vibrations through a word, a surrender, a thought or an action of love.

As the pressure intensifies on your Planet, you may falter though you will not fall if you continue to walk with Me, using My mind and My love, to your advantage. Use every intense moment as leverage to raise yourself above it. You will make your Ascension shortly.

And then there are billions amongst you that still toy with the Codes of Conduct and The Laws of Love that govern Ascension. Those same beings have an on again off again relationship with Me, and their own I Am Presence. There is ongoing struggle to find peace and balance.

Beloveds, until you lay aside the folly of your senses, and live your life as an act of Love, in gratitude and trust of Me at all times, you will be on hold to ascend.

As much as I love each and every one of you, no one will experience their personal Ascension by any other means than through a total and complete renewal and reintegration with their I Am Presence, the most Divine part of you, that is the most Divine part of Me.

Less you surrender every grip on your mortal identities, and cease fighting to be right for all that limits you, you will continue to fight against the Light rendering yourselves powerless and at the mercy of long standing chaos.

Reach for your freedom, no matter what the energies or the planets around your planet are doing. You are each fully capable of bursting through all obstacles from the inside out.

Slow down, give Me your will, open your heart fully and pay attention to your Life, and what it is asking you to let go of, and let in.

Too often you refuse to properly perceive and embrace the blessings of higher awareness as you rush through the experiences of your life. You choose to forget that every experience you have lives within a sacred moment, and carries a message vital to the expansion of your consciousness.

I wish to remind you (briefly) of a time in your history, that many of you were a part of; a time when you came to know that your only salvation was to use your experience to return to Me, out of love for yourself.

Perhaps, from this, you will draw strength and compassion and a sense of urgency to complete your journey into the Light.

Over 12,000 years ago the beloved continent of Lemuria, and many of its inhabitants, were completely submerged underwater.

Overnight everything was lost. All material possessions were gone. Loved ones were separated. Animals, minerals, elementals and nature, along with all the beauty and all the aspects of daily living on this magnificent continent vanished in one fell swoop, without warning.

All that was left was Self, seeking the meaning and the purpose of life, while in the void of nothing. There was no time for pity or stories. There was no time to be angry, or truly feel the pain, though the agony was beyond words.

The traumas of betrayal and abandonment that existed remained to be healed by each, in succeeding lifetimes.

That was the beginning of fulfilling the purpose for coming to the Earth, to seek one's Spiritual Mastery in a state of complete surrender.

Every being was left only to themselves and with Me. Can you imagine/remember the hell and heartbreak and then the courage and perseverance to begin again with nothing, but Me as their Source and supply for all things?

During that time the High Priests and Priestesses of Lemuria prophesized that many of you would gather again during a time of great trial and tribulation upon the earth. And, it was spoken, that those living on the earth at such a time would be given every opportunity to make a full recovery and make their Ascension back into the One Mind and One Heart of God, freed from the third dimension and all of its dark, dire and separated influences, forevermore.

You live in the midst of that prophecy. You were chosen to come back to Earth now, (whether you lived in Lemuria or Atlantis,) to purify yourself and bring peace to this earth, and bring peace to yourself. You will never have to go through darkness and separation again, if you will only come to the Light now. Let yourself ascend.

You have no further need to suffer or fight, Beloveds. You are almost home. Let everything go, everything that causes you struggle, including your sadness. Let it go.

I ask you to understand now, that you are being initiated, by a final series of personal and global experiences, to bring you to the altar of your Ascension. Pay attention. Slow your pace.

Use every precious moment of your incarnation, as you end this cycle of evolution, to be in harmony with your heart, and with Me during a time of unprecedented reward. Dig deep for your own love.

Breathe My life into you. Together, we will restore the world that you carry within you.

I Am asking you to go beyond your deepest fears. I will take care of you. Let Me in. Give Me your will and give Me your fears. I know what to do with them. Trust Me.

I miss you. I love you and I await you all."

Copyright Maureen Moss 2010. I ask that you include my name and websites as this is part of a greater body of work.

I wish you each love, joy, blessings, clarity and abundance. May Grace follow you always.

Know you are loved!


Maureen Moss
President of The World Puja Network, LLC
E-Mail: Maureen@worldpuja.org
Or: Maureen@maureenmoss.com

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